Linear Current-Mode Active Pixel Sensor

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CMOS analog integrated circuits
image sensors
Electrical and Computer Engineering
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Philipp, Ralf M
Orr, David
Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

A current mode CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) providing linear light-to-current conversion with inherently low fixed pattern noise (FPN) is presented. The pixel features adjustable-gain current output using a pMOS readout transistor in the linear region of operation. This paper discusses the pixel’s design and operation, and presents an analysis of the pixel’s temporal noise and FPN. Results for zero and first-order pixel mismatch are presented. The pixel was implemented in a both a 3.3 V 0.35 µm and a 1.8 V 0.18 µm CMOS process. The 0.35 µm process pixel had an uncorrected FPN of 1.4%/0.7% with/without column readout mismatch. The 0.18 µm process pixel had 0.4% FPN after delta-reset sampling (DRS). The pixel size in both processes was 10 X 10 µm2, with fill factors of 26% and 66%, respectively.

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Copyright 2007 IEEE. Reprinted from IEEE Journal on Solid State Circuits, Volume 42, Issue 11, November 2007, pages 2482-2491. This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any way imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Pennsylvania's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it.
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