Using an apparent time approach and acoustic phonetic analysis, this study provides the first description of sociolinguistic variation in the realizations of the short-front vowels in Hawaiʻi English. We demonstrate that the realizations of the short-front vowels in Hawaiʻi are conditioned by speaker sex and age, and whether an individual self-identifies as a speaker of Pidgin. We argue that the differences between the vowel realizations of Pidgin and non-Pidgin speakers are likely to be at least partially socially-motivated.
Drager, Katie; Kirtley, M. Joelle; Grama, James; and Simpson, Sean
"Language Variation and Change in Hawai’i English: KIT, DRESS, and TRAP,"
University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: Vol. 19
, Article 6.
Available at: https://repository.upenn.edu/pwpl/vol19/iss2/6