PublicationFinancial Fragility, Financial Resilience, and Pension Distributions(2024-01) Clark, Robert LWe evaluate Americans’ financial robustness during the Covid-19 pandemic, using measures of financial resilience and financial fragility derived from US surveys of persons age 45-75 from 2020 to 2022. We analyze which factors were associated with resilience and fragility, discuss how these measures changed during the pandemic, and assess whether pre-pandemic resilience led to better outcomes during the period. Results show that stronger resilience was protective in terms of financial fragility, and financial literacy was associated with greater pension knowledge as well as better information about retirement plan distribution options. The more financially resilient were also more likely to select an annuity as a pension payout. Our findings imply that policies and programs enhancing financial resilience could help households better withstand economic shocks and address income needs in times of crisis. PublicationWhat Makes a Culturally Responsive School? Leadership Conceptualizations, Enactments, and Implications(Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 2024-02-21) Katarina SuwakThis qualitative study uses data from a sample of school leaders across the United States to better understand the ways in which they conceptualize Culturally Responsive Schooling (CRS) and the types of practices school leaders enact to create more culturally responsive schools. Findings show that while leaders’ implementation of CRS practices are aligned with their definition of what they believe CRS is, there may be important aspects of CRS that are missing - both from leaders’ conceptualizations and from their enactments - in order to dismantle current systems of oppression and reimagine an educational approach that is inclusive of, and beneficial for all students. PublicationBusy Bees: How Does Conscientiousness Affect Labor Market Outcomes?(2024-02-07) Hervé, Justine; Purcell, Helene; Mani, SubhaPersonality traits play an important role in shaping labor market outcomes, but the associated behaviors that lead to these differences are understudied. In this paper, we examine the returns to the Big Five personality traits as well as the mechanisms through which personality affects employment and earnings. We find conscientiousness to be a significant predictor of both employment and earnings. We further show that the association between conscientiousness and earnings operates primarily through one specific behavior, namely, higher work intensity. Additionally, we are able to rule out selection into specific job types as potential channels for the positive relationship between conscientiousness and earnings. PublicationThe Role of Friends in the Opioid Epidemic(2024-02-07) Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Greenwood, Jeremy; Guner, Nezih; Kopecky, KarenThe role of friends in the US opioid epidemic is examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (Add Health), adults aged 25-34 and their high school best friends are focused on. An instrumental variable technique is employed to estimate peer effects in opioid misuse. Severe injuries in the previous year are used as an instrument for opioid misuse in order to estimate the causal impact of someone misusing opioids on the probability that their best friends also misuse. The estimated peer effects are significant: Having a best friend with a reported serious injury in the previous year increases the probability of own opioid misuse by around 7 percentage points in a population where 17 percent ever misuses opioids. The effect is driven by individuals without a college degree and those who live in the same county as their best friends. PublicationFemale Headship and Poverty in the Arab Region: Analysis of Trends and Dynamics Based on a New Typology(2024-02-07) AlAzzawi, Shireen; Dang, Hai-Anh; Hlasny, Vladimir; Behrman, Jere R.; Kseniya, AbanokovaVarious challenges are thought to render female-headed households (FHHs) vulnerable to poverty in the Arab region. Yet, previous studies have mixed results and the absence of household panel survey data hinders analysis of poverty dynamics. We address these challenges by proposing a novel typology of FHHs and analyze synthetic panels that we constructed from 20 rounds of repeated cross-sectional surveys spanning the past two decades from Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Mauritania, Palestine, and Tunisia. We find that the definition of FHHs matters for measuring poverty levels and dynamics. Most types of FHHs are less poor than non-FHHs on average, but FHHs with a major share of female adults are generally poorer. FHHs are more likely to escape poverty than households on average, but FHHs without children are most likely to do so. While more children are generally associated with more poverty for FHHs, there is heterogeneity across countries in addition to heterogeneity across FHH measures. Our findings provide useful inputs for social protection and employment programs aiming at reducing gender inequalities and poverty in the Arab region.