Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation

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Center for Human Modeling and Simulation
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The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real-time virtual humans are considered, such as appearance and motion, interactive control, autonomous action, gesture, attention, locomotion, and multiple individuals. The underlying architecture consists of a sense-control-act structure that permits reactive behaviors to be locally adaptive to the environment, and a "PaT-Net" parallel finite-state machine controller that can be used to drive virtual humans through complex tasks. Finally, we argue for a deep connection between language and animation and describe current efforts in linking them through the JackMOO extension to lambdaMOO.

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Center for Human Modeling and Simulation
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Copyright 1997 IEEE. Reprinted from Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Non-Rigid and Articulated Motion, June 1997, pages 28-36. Publisher URL: This material is posted here with permission of the IEEE. Such permission of the IEEE does not in any imply IEEE endorsement of any of the University of Pennsylvania's products or services. Internal or personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution must be obtained from the IEEE by writing to By choosing to view this document, you agree to all provisions of the copyright laws protecting it.
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