Zhang, Teng

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Now showing 1 - 6 of 6
  • Publication
    Overhead-Aware Deployment of Runtime Monitors
    (2019-10-01) Zhang, Teng; Lee, Insup; Sokolsky, Oleg; Eakman, Greg
    One important issue needed to be handled when applying runtime verification is the time overhead introduced by online monitors. According to how monitors are deployed with the system to be monitored, the overhead may come from the execution of monitoring logic or asynchronous communication. In this paper, we present a method for deciding how to deploy runtime monitors with awareness of minimizing the overhead. We first propose a parametric model to estimate the overhead given the prior knowledge on the distribution of incoming events and the time cost of sending a message and executing monitoring logic. Then, we will discuss how to statically decide the boundary of synchronous and asynchronous monitors such that the lowest overhead can be obtained.
  • Publication
    Monitoring Time Intervals
    (2017-09-01) Zhang, Teng; Wiegley, John; Lee, Insup; Sokolsky, Oleg
    Run-time checking of timed properties requires to monitor events occurring within a specified time interval. In a distributed setting, working with intervals is complicated due to uncertainties about network delays and clock synchronization. Determining that an interval can be closed - i.e., that all events occurring within the interval have been observed - cannot be done without a delay. In this paper, we consider how an appropriate delay can be determined based on parameters of a monitoring setup, such as network delay, clock skew and clock rate. We then propose a generic scheme for monitoring time intervals, parameterized by the detection delay, and discuss the use of this monitoring scheme to check different timed specifications, including real-time temporal logics and rate calculations.
  • Publication
    Correct-by-construction implementation of runtime monitors using stepwise refinement
    (2018-09-01) Zhang, Teng; Wiegley, John; Giannakopoulos, Theophilos; Eakman, Gregory; Pit-Claudel, Clement; Lee, Insup; Sokolsky, Oleg
    Runtime verification (RV) is a lightweight technique for verifying traces of computer systems. One challenge in applying RV is to guarantee that the implementation of a runtime monitor correctly detects and signals unexpected events. In this paper, we present a method for deriving correct-by-construction implementations of runtime monitors from high-level specifications using Fiat, a Coq library for stepwise refinement. SMEDL (Scenario-based Meta-Event Definition Language), a domain specific language for event-driven RV, is chosen as the specification language. We propose an operational semantics for SMEDL suitable to be used in Fiat to describe the behavior of a monitor in a relational way. Then, by utilizing Fiat's refinement calculus, we transform a declarative monitor specification into an executable runtime monitor with a proof that the behavior of the implementation is strictly a subset of that provided by the specification. Moreover, we define a predicate on the syntax structure of a monitor definition to ensure termination and determinism. Most of the proof work required to generate monitor code has been automated.
  • Publication
    Monitoring Assumptions in Assume-Guarantee Contracts
    (2016-06-01) Sokolsky, Oleg; Zhang, Teng; Lee, Insup; McDougall, Michael
    Pre-deployment verification of software components with respect to behavioral specifications in the assume-guarantee form does not, in general, guarantee absence of errors at run time. This is because assumptions about the environment cannot be discharged until the environment is fixed. An intuitive approach is to complement pre-deployment verification of guarantees, up to the assumptions, with post-deployment monitoring of environment behavior to check that the assumptions are satisfied at run time. Such a monitor is typically implemented by instrumenting the application code of the component. An additional challenge for the monitoring step is that environment behaviors are typically obtained through an I/O library, which may alter the component’s view of the input format. This transformation requires us to introduce a second pre-deployment verification step to ensure that alarms raised by the monitor would indeed correspond to violations of the environment assumptions. In this paper, we describe an approach for constructing monitors and verifying them against the component assumption. We also discuss limitations of instrumentation-based monitoring and potential ways to overcome it.
  • Publication
    SMEDL: Combining Synchronous and Asynchronous Monitoring
    (2016-09-01) Zhang, Teng; Gebhard, Peter; Sokolsky, Oleg
    Two major approaches have emerged in runtime verification, based on synchronous and asynchronous monitoring. Each approach has its advantages and disadvantages and is applicable in different situations. In this paper, we explore a hybrid approach, where low-level properties are checked synchronously, while higher-level ones are checked asynchronously. We present a tool for constructing and deploying monitors based on an architecture specification. Monitor logic and patterns of communication between monitors are specified in a language SMEDL. The language and the tool are illustrated using a case study of a robotic simulator.
  • Publication
    Runtime verification of parametric properties using SMEDL
    (2019-09-01) Zhang, Teng; Kaur, Ramneet; Lee, Insup; Sokolsky, Oleg
    Parametric properties are typical properties to be checked in runtime verification (RV). As a common technique for parametric monitoring, trace slicing divides an execution trace into a set of sub traces which are checked against non-parametric base properties. An efficient trace slicing algorithm is implemented in MOP. Another RV technique, QEA further allows for nested use of universal and existential quantification over parameters. In this paper, we present a methodology for parametric monitoring using the RV framework SMEDL. Trace slicing algorithm in MOP can be expressed by execution of a set of SMEDL monitors. Moreover, the semantics of nested quantifiers is encoded by a hierarchy of monitors for aggregating verdicts of sub traces. Through case studies, we demonstrate that SMEDL provides a natural way to monitor parametric properties with more potentials for flexible deployment and optimizations.