Moreno, Jonathan D

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 15
  • Publication
    A Taxonomy of Value in Clinical Research
    (2002-12-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    Medical research that involves human subjects presents what appears to be an intractable ethical problem: patients are exposed to risks in order to create valuable knowledge. A central goal of research is to produce knowledge that is "important," "fruitful," or that will have "value." Indeed, federal regulations require that research risks be reasonable in proportion to potential benefits, and in proportion to the importance of the knowledge to be gained (45 CFR 46.111(a)(z)). Moreover, one reason that subjects participate inresearch is to produce knowledge that will benefit others.
  • Publication
    Neuroethics: an agenda for neuroscience and society
    (2003-02-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    The last decades of the twentieth century saw the rise of modern genetics. Now, many regard the initial decades of the twenty-first century as an era that promises explosive growth in our knowledge of the brain. Just as ethical issues have been a part of discourse in genetics from the outset, we are now paying attention to ethics in neuroscience. But whereas the ethics of genetics was in many ways a new conversation, the philosophical discussion of mental function and behaviour is an ancient tradition that both informs and complicates the emerging field of neuroethics.
  • Publication
    DARPA On Your Mind
    (2004-09-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    Think your brain is being controlled or disrupted by the Pentagon? You risk being called a nut, but the notion is not so far-fetched. Current research at the intersection of neuroscience and national security might one day produce weapons that literally boggle (or, if desired, enhance) the mind. This would give us unprecedented war-fighting superiority as well as a set of ethical dilemmas that could make genetically-modified-organism issues pale in comparison.
  • Publication
    The Triumph of Autonomy in Bioethics and Commercialism in American Healthcare
    (2007-01-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    Justifying his proposal for "health savings accounts," which would allow individuals to set aside tax-free dollars against future healthcare needs, President Bush has said that "Health savings accounts all aim at empowering people to make decisions for themselves." Who could disagree with such a sentiment? Although bioethicists may be among those who express skepticism that personal health savings accounts will be part of the needed "fix" of our healthcare financing system, self determination has long been part of their mantra. Indeed, the field of bioethics played an important role in advancing this idea in the medical world when physician paternalism was regnant. Has its popularity caused it to become so vapid as to be ripe for misuse?
  • Publication
    Bioethics Consultation in the Private Sector
    (2002-06-01) Brody, Baruch; Dubbler, Nancy; Caplan, Arthur L.; Blustein, Jeff; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Kass, Nancy; Moreno, Jonathan; Lo, Bernard; Sugarman, Jeremy; Zoloth, Laurie
    The members of a task force on bioethics consultation report their conclusions. The task force was convened by the American Society for Bioethics and Humanities and the American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, although these groups do not endorse the group's conclusions. Two commentaries follow, and an essay by science reporter Nell Boyce sets the scene.
  • Publication
    Neuroscience, Ethics, and National Security: The State of the Art
    (2012-03-20) Tennison, Michael N; Moreno, Jonathan D
    National security organizations in the United States, including the armed services and the intelligence community, have developed a close relationship with the scientific establishment. The latest technology often fuels warfighting and counter- intelligence capacities, providing the tactical advantages thought necessary to maintain geopolitical dominance and national security. Neuroscience has emerged as a prominent focus within this milieu, annually receiving hundreds of millions of Defense Department dollars. Its role in national security operations raises ethical issues that need to be addressed to ensure the pragmatic synthesis of ethical accountability and national security.
  • Publication
    Human Experiments and National Security: The Need to Clarify Policy
    (2003-04-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    On September 4, 2001, press reports indicated that the Defense Intelligence Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) planned to reproduce a strain of anthrax virus suspected of being held in Russian laboratories. According to the same reports, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), under the auspices of Project Clear Vision, is engaged in building replicas of bomblets believed to have been developed by the former Soviet Union. These small bombs were designed to disperse biological agents, including anthrax. Government attorneys were said to be confident that, because these projects were designed to develop defensive measures, they were not in violation of the 1972 Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.
  • Publication
    Bioethics Inside the Beltway: IRBs Under the Microscope
    (1998-09-01) Moreno, Jonathan
    The spring and summer of 1998 were seasons in the sun for institutional review board (IRB) aficionados. Rarely have the arcana of the local human subjects review panels been treated to so much attention in both the executive and the legislative branches of government, not only at the federal but also at the state level. And it looks as if the attention will continue for some time. The spate of interest is due to a series of coincidences: a powerful House of Representatives subcommittee held hearings after its chairman learned about the IRB system during a previous session on research in underdeveloped communities; the Department of Health and Human Services's Inspector General (DHHS-IG) released a report on IRBs; the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Extramural Research completed a report on clinical trial monitoring; the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC) readied a report on research involving persons with mental disorders; the states of Maryland and New York completed studies of research with subjects who lack decision-making capacity; and advocacy groups protested a psychiatric research project involving inner city children.
  • Publication
    Making Sense of Consensus: Responses to Engelhardt, Hester, Kuczewski, Trotter, and Zoloth
    (2002-01-01) Moreno, Jonathan D
    It has been a pleasure to read these papers and to contemplate their importance for what I believe to be a useful and provocative prism though which to view the field of bioethics: the nature of moral consensus. In my own most extended contribution to this literature, Deciding Together, I did not attempt to prescribe so much as to understand the role of moral consensus in the practice of bioethics. At the end of the book, I expressed the hope that it might help trigger an examination of bioethics and moral consensus. Though a few others shared my interest at that time (in particular Tris Engelhardt, for whose early encouragement I remain deeply grateful), with this set of stimulating papers the conversation has finally begun in earnest.
  • Publication
    Goodbye to All That: The End to Moderate Protectionism in Human Subjects Research
    (2001-06-01) Moreno, Jonathan D
    Federal policies on human research subjects have undergone a progressive transformation. In the early decades of the twentieth century, federal policies largely relied on the discretion of investigators to decide when and how to conduct research. This approach gradually gave way to policies that augmented investigator discretion with externally imposed protections. We may now be entering an era of even more stringent external protections. Whether the new policies effectively absolve investigators of personal responsibility for conducting ethical research, and whether it is wise to do so, remains to be seen.