## Mukundakrishnan, Karthik

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Publication Effect of a Soluble Surfactant on a Finite-Sized Bubble Motion in a Blood Vessel(2010-01-01) Swaminathan, Tirumani N.; Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.We present detailed results for the motion of a finite-sized gas bubble in a blood vessel. The bubble (dispersed phase) size is taken to be such as to nearly occlude the vessel. The bulk medium is treated as a shear thinning Casson fluid and contains a soluble surfactant that adsorbs and desorbs from the interface. Three different vessel sizes, corresponding to a small artery, a large arteriole, and a small arteriole, in normal humans, are considered. The haematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) has been taken to be 0.45. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus–Lindqvist effect is taken into account. Bubble motion causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. Shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are associated with a recirculation vortex at the rear of the moving bubble. The presence of the surfactant reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. Our numerical results for bubble shapes and wall shear stresses may help explain phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.Publication The Dynamics of Two Spherical Particles in a Confined Rotating Flow: Pedalling Motion(2008-03-25) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Hu, Howard H.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.We have numerically investigated the interaction dynamics between two rigid spherical particles moving in a fluid-filled cylinder that is rotating at a constant speed. The cylinder rotation is about a horizontal axis. The particle densities are less than that of the fluid. The numerical procedure employed to solve the mathematical formulation is based on a three-dimensional arbitrary Larangian–Eulerian (ALE), moving mesh finite-element technique, described in a frame of reference rotating with the cylinder. Results are obtained in the ranges of particle Reynolds number, 1Publication Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: Non-Newtonian effects(2008-09-01) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David MWe have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model - a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=ΡlUmaxd/µapp, in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, Ρl is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and µapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), λ, in the range 0.9 ≤ λ≤1.05. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects are taken into account. Both horizontal and vertical vessel geometries have been investigated. Many significant insights are revealed by our study: (i) bubble motion causes large temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the "endothelial cell" (EC) surface lining the blood vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it, and passes it by; (ii) rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress (+ → - → +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble; (iv) computed magnitudes of shear stress gradients coupled with their sign reversals may correspond to levels that cause injury to the cell by membrane disruption through impulsive compression and stretching; and (v) for the vessel sizes and flow rates investigated, gravitational effects are negligible.Publication Numerical study of wall effects on buoyant gas-bubble rise in a liquid-filled finite cylinder(2007-09-01) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M; Quan, ShaopingThe wall effects on the axisymmetric rise and deformation of an initially spherical gas bubble released from rest in a liquid-filled, finite circular cylinder are numerically investigated. The bulk and gas phases are considered incompressible and immiscible. The bubble motion and deformation are characterized by the Morton number Mo, Eötvös number Eo, Reynolds number Re, Weber number We, density ratio, viscosity ratio, the ratios of the cylinder height and the cylinder radius to the diameter of the initially spherical bubble (H* =H/d0, R*=R/d0). Bubble rise in liquids described by Eo and Mo combinations ranging from (1,0.01) to (277.5,0.092), as appropriate to various terminal state Reynolds numbers (ReT) and shapes have been studied. The range of terminal state Reynolds numbers includes 0.02T<70. Bubble shapes at terminal states vary from spherical to intermediate spherical-cap–skirted. The numerical procedure employs a front tracking finite difference method coupled with a level contour reconstruction of the front. This procedure ensures a smooth distribution of the front points and conserves the bubble volume. For the wide range of Eo and Mo examined, bubble motion in cylinders of height H*=8 and R≥3, is noted to correspond to the rise in an infinite medium, both in terms of Reynolds number and shape at terminal state. In a thin cylindrical vessel (small R*) the motion of the bubble is retarded due to increased total drag and the bubble achieves terminal conditions within a short distance from release. The wake effects on bubble rise are reduced, and elongated bubbles may occur at appropriate conditions. For a fixed volume of the bubble, increasing the cylinder radius may result in the formation of well-defined rear recirculatory wakes that are associated with lateral bulging and skirt formation. The paper includes figures of bubble shape regimes for various values of R*, Eo, Mo, and ReT. Our predictions agree with existing results reported in the literature.