University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics


Despite the social perception that Vermont’s rural dialect is dying, /t/ glottalization is a robust feature, especially among adolescent and younger speakers (Roberts 2006). The current study continues the investigation of Vermont glottalization with particular emphasis on a single variant: aspiration following glottal stop replacement. 11,736 tokens were collected from the informal interviews of 30 speakers. A mixed-effects binomial logistic regression model using the lme4 package (Bates et al. 2015) was built with combined glottal replacement variants as the response variable and glottal reinforcement as the alternative variable, fixed effects of preceding (p



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