Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers


Joyce Manchester

Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



The published version of this Working Paper may be found in the 1999 publication: Prospects for Social Security Reform.

Working Paper Number


Copyright/Permission Statement

All findings, interpretations, and conclusions of this paper represent the views of the author(s) and not those of the Wharton School or the Pension Research Council. © 1997 Pension Research Council of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved.


The author gratefully acknowledges support from the World Bank, where she was a Visiting Fellow while writing an earlier version of this chapter. The views expressed are those of the author alone and not those of the Congressional Budget Office or the World Bank. The author would like to thank Olivia Mitchell as well as Anita Schwarz, David Lindeman, Estelle James, Kent Smetters, Jan Walliser, and many others involved in pensions at the World Bank for helpful discussions.

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Economics Commons



Date Posted: 26 February 2020