Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers


Karen C. Holden

Document Type

Working Paper

Date of this Version



The published version of this Working Paper may be found in the 1999 publication: Prospects for Social Security Reform.

Working Paper Number


Copyright/Permission Statement

All findings, interpretations, and conclusions of this paper represent the views of the author(s) and not those of the Wharton School or the Pension Research Council. © 1999 Pension Research Council of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. All rights reserved.


Support for this research was provided in part by a grant from the Social Security Administration and a training grant in the Economics of Mental Health from the National Institute of Mental Health. Sean Nicholson and Stuart Kipnis provided valuable assistance with the NBS and SIPP estimates, respectively.

Included in

Economics Commons



Date Posted: 26 February 2020