Marketing Papers

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

July 1993


We examined nine marketing textbooks, published since 1927, to see if they contained useful marketing principles. Four doctoral students found 566 normative statements about pricing, product, place, or promotion in these texts. None of these stateinents were supported by empirical evidence. Four raters agreed on only twenty of these 566 statements as providing meaningful principles. Twenty marketing professors rated whether the twenty meaningful principles were correct, supported by empirical evidence, useful, or surprising. None met all the criteria. Nine were judged to be nearly as correct when their wording was reversed.


Postprint version. Published in Marketing Letters, Volume 4, Issue 3, July 1993, pages 253-265. The original publication is available at
Publisher URL:
The author has asserted his/her right to include this material in ScholarlyCommons@Penn.


marketing principles, price, product, promotion, place



Date Posted: 28 July 2006