Marketing Papers

Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version

May 1980


"If you can't convince them, confuse them." Simply put, this is the advice that J. Scott Armstrong, a marketing professor at the Wharton School, coolly gives his fellow academics these days. It is based on his studies confirming what he calls the Dr. Fox hypothesis: "An unintelligible communication from a legitimate source in the recipient's area of expertise will increase the recipient's rating of the author's competence."


Postprint version. Published in Psychology Today, May 1980, page 12.



Date Posted: 18 June 2007