Smectic-A Elastomers with Weak Director Anchoring
Experimentally it is possible to manipulate the director in a (chiral) smectic-A elastomer using an electric field. This suggests that the director is not necessarily locked to the layer normal, as described in earlier papers that extended rubber elasticity theory to smectics. Here, we consider the case that the director is weakly anchored to the layer normal assuming that there is a free energy penalty associated with relative tilt between the two. We use a recently developed weak-anchoring generalization of rubber elastic approaches to smectic elastomers and study shearing in the plane of the layers, stretching in the plane of the layers, and compression and elongation parallel to the layer normal. We calculate, inter alia, the engineering stress and the tilt angle between director and layer normal as functions of the applied deformation. For the latter three deformations, our results predict the existence of an instability towards the development of shear accompanied by smectic-C-like order.