## Stenull, Olaf

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Publication Smectic-C Tilt Under Shear in Smectic-A Elastomers(2008-08-08) Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, Thomas C.; Adams, J. M.; Warner, MarkStenull and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. E 76, 011706 (2007)] have argued that shear strain and tilt of the director relative to the layer normal are coupled in smectic elastomers and that the imposition of one necessarily leads to the development of the other. This means, in particular, that a smectic-A elastomer subjected to a simple shear will develop smectic-C-like tilt of the director. Recently, Kramer and Finkelmann [e-print arXiv:0708.2024; Phys. Rev. E 78, 021704 (2008)], performed shear experiments on smectic-A elastomers using two different shear geometries. One of the experiments, which implements simple shear, produces clear evidence for the development of smectic-C-like tilt. Here, we generalize a model for smectic elastomers introduced by Adams and Warner [Phys. Rev. E 71, 021708 (2005)] and use it to study the magnitude of SmC-like tilt under shear for the two geometries investigated by Kramer and Finkelmann. Using reasonable estimates of model parameters, we estimate the tilt angle for both geometries, and we compare our estimates to the experimental results. The other shear geometry is problematic since it introduces additional in-plane compressions in a sheetlike sample, thus inducing instabilities that we discuss.Publication Anomalous Elasticity in Nematic and Smectic Elastomer Tubule Phases(2008-09-03) Stenull, OlafWe study anomalous elasticity in the tubule phases of nematic and smectic elastomer membranes, which are flat in one direction and crumpled in another. These phases share the same macroscopic symmetry properties including spontaneously broken in-plane isotropy and hence belong to the same universality class. Below an upper critical value Dc=3 of the membranesâ€™ intrinsic dimension D, thermal fluctuations renormalize the elasticity with respect to elastic displacements along the tubule axis so that elastic moduli for compression along the tubule axis and for bending the tubule axis become length-scale dependent. This anomalous elasticity belongs to the same universality class as that of d-dimensional conventional smectic liquid crystals with D taking on the role of d. For physical tubule phases, D=2, this anomaly is of power-law type and thus might by easier to detect experimentally than the logarithmic anomaly in conventional smectics.Publication Elasticity of a filamentous kagome lattice(2013-04-09) Stenull, Olaf; Mao, Xiaoming; Lubensky, Thomas C.The diluted kagome lattice, in which bonds are randomly removed with probability 1âˆ’p, consists of straight lines that intersect at points with a maximum coordination number of 4. If lines are treated as semiflexible polymers and crossing points are treated as cross-links, this lattice provides a simple model for two-dimensional filamentous networks. Lattice-based effective-medium theories and numerical simulations for filaments modeled as elastic rods, with stretching modulus Î¼ and bending modulus Îº, are used to study the elasticity of this lattice as functions of p and Îº. At p=1, elastic response is purely affine, and the macroscopic elastic modulus G is independent of Îº. When Îº=0, the lattice undergoes a first-order rigidity-percolation transition at p=1. When Îº>0, G decreases continuously as p decreases below one, reaching zero at a continuous rigidity-percolation transition at p=pbâ‰ˆ0.605 that is the same for all nonzero values of Îº. The effective-medium theories predict scaling forms for G, which exhibit crossover from bending-dominated response at small Îº/Î¼ to stretching-dominated response at large Îº/Î¼ near both p=1 and pb, that match simulations with no adjustable parameters near p=1. The affine response as pâ†’1 is identified with the approach to a state with sample-crossing straight filaments treated as elastic rods.Publication Dynamics of Smectic Elastomers(2007-03-30) Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, Tom CWe study the low-frequency, long-wavelength dynamics of liquid crystal elastomers, crosslinked in the smectic-A phase, in their smectic-A, biaxial smectic and smectic-C phases. Two different yet related formulations are employed. One formulation describes the pure hydrodynamics and does not explicitly involve the Frank director, which relaxes to its local equilibrium value in a nonhydrodynamic time. The other formulation explicitly treats the director and applies beyond the hydrodynamic limit. We compare the low-frequency, long-wavelength dynamics of smectic-A elastomers to that of nematics and show that the two are closely related. For the biaxial smectic and the smectic-C phases, we calculate sound velocities and the mode structure in certain symmetry directions. For the smectic-C elastomers, in addition, we discuss in some detail their possible behavior in rheology experiments.Publication Scaling Exponents for a Monkey on a Tree: Fractal Dimensions of Randomly Branched Polymers(2012-05-17) Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, OlafWe study asymptotic properties of diffusion and other transport processes (including self-avoiding walks and electrical conduction) on large, randomly branched polymers using renormalized dynamical field theory. We focus on the swollen phase and the collapse transition, where loops in the polymers are irrelevant. Here the asymptotic statistics of the polymers is that of lattice trees, and diffusion on them is reminiscent of the climbing of a monkey on a tree. We calculate a set of universal scaling exponents including the diffusion exponent and the fractal dimension of the minimal path to two-loop order and, where available, compare them to numerical results.Publication Collapse Transition of Randomly Branched Polymers: Renormalized Field Theory(2011-05-20) Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, OlafWe present a minimal dynamical model for randomly branched isotropic polymers, and we study this model in the framework of renormalized field theory. For the swollen phase, we show that our model provides a route to understand the well-established dimensional-reduction results from a different angle. For the collapse Î¸ transition, we uncover a hidden Becchi-Rouet-Stora supersymmetry, signaling the sole relevance of tree configurations.We correct the long-standing one-loop results for the critical exponents, and we push these results on to two-loop order. For the collapse Î¸ transition, we find a runaway of the renormalization group flow, which lends credence to the possibility that this transition is a fluctuation-induced first-order transition. Our dynamical model allows us to calculate for the first time the fractal dimension of the shortest path on randomly branched polymers in the swollen phase as well as at the collapse transition and related fractal dimensions.Publication Smectic-A Elastomers with Weak Director Anchoring(2008-07-08) Adams, J. M.; Stenull, Olaf; Warner, Mark; Lubensky, Thomas C.Experimentally it is possible to manipulate the director in a (chiral) smectic-A elastomer using an electric field. This suggests that the director is not necessarily locked to the layer normal, as described in earlier papers that extended rubber elasticity theory to smectics. Here, we consider the case that the director is weakly anchored to the layer normal assuming that there is a free energy penalty associated with relative tilt between the two. We use a recently developed weak-anchoring generalization of rubber elastic approaches to smectic elastomers and study shearing in the plane of the layers, stretching in the plane of the layers, and compression and elongation parallel to the layer normal. We calculate, inter alia, the engineering stress and the tilt angle between director and layer normal as functions of the applied deformation. For the latter three deformations, our results predict the existence of an instability towards the development of shear accompanied by smectic-C-like order.Publication Distribution Functions in Percolation Problems(2009-01-30) Janssen, Hans-Karl; Stenull, OlafPercolation clusters are random fractals whose geometrical and transport properties can be characterized with the help of probability distribution functions. Using renormalized field theory, we determine the asymptotic form of various such distribution functions in the limits where certain scaling variables become small or large. Our study includes the pair-connection probability, the distributions of the fractal masses of the backbone, the red bonds, and the shortest, the longest, and the average self-avoiding walk between any two points on a cluster, as well as the distribution of the total resistance in the random resistor network. Our analysis draws solely on general, structural features of the underlying diagrammatic perturbation theory, and hence our main results are valid to arbitrary loop order.Publication Soft Elasticity in Biaxial Smectic and Smectic-C Elastomers(2006-11-26) Stenull, Olaf; Lubensky, Thomas CIdeal (monodomain) smectic-A elastomers cross-linked in the smectic-A phase are simply uniaxial rubbers, provided deformations are small. From these materials smectic-C elastomers are produced by a cooling through the smectic-A to smectic-C phase transition. At least in principle, biaxial smectic elastomers could also be produced via cooling from the smectic-A to a biaxial smectic phase. These phase transitions, respectively, from Dâˆžh to C2h and from Dâˆžh to D2h symmetry, spontaneously break the rotational symmetry in the smectic planes. We study the above transitions and the elasticity of the smectic-C and biaxial phases in three different but related models: Landau-like phenomenological models as functions of the Cauchy-Saint-Laurent strain tensor for both the biaxial and the smectic-C phases and a detailed model, including contributions from the elastic network, smectic layer compression, and smectic-C tilt for the smectic-C phase as a function of both strain and the c-director. We show that the emergent phases exhibit soft elasticity characterized by the vanishing of certain elastic moduli. We analyze in some detail the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking as the origin of soft elasticity and we discuss different manifestations of softness like the absence of restoring forces under certain shears and extensional strains.Publication Renormalized Field Theory of Collapsing Directed Randomly Branched Polymers(2009-10-30) Janssen, Hans-Karl; Wevelsiep, Frank; Stenull, OlafWe present a dynamical field theory for directed randomly branched polymers and in particular their collapse transition. We develop a phenomenological model in the form of a stochastic response functional that allows us to address several interesting problems such as the scaling behavior of the swollen phase and the collapse transition. For the swollen phase, we find that by choosing model parameters appropriately, our stochastic functional reduces to the one describing the relaxation dynamics near the Yang-Lee singularity edge. This corroborates that the scaling behavior of swollen branched polymers is governed by the Yang-Lee universality class as has been known for a long time. The main focus of our paper lies on the collapse transition of directed branched polymers. We show to arbitrary order in renormalized perturbation theory with Îµ expansion that this transition belongs to the same universality class as directed percolation.