Center for Human Modeling and Simulation

Document Type

Conference Paper

Date of this Version


Publication Source

Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (AAMAS '08)



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Crowd simulation models are currently lacking a commonly accepted validation method. In this paper, we propose level of presence achieved by a human in a virtual environment (VE) as a metric for virtual crowd behavior. Using experimental evidence from the presence literature and the results of a pilot experiment that we ran, we explore the egocentric features that a crowd simulation model should have in order to achieve high levels of presence and thus be used as a framework for validation of simulated crowd behavior. We implemented four crowd models for our pilot experiment: social forces, rule based, cellular automata and HiDAC. Participants interacted with the crowd members of each model in an immersive virtual environment for the purpose of studying presence in virtual crowds, with the goal of establishing the basis for a future validation method.

Copyright/Permission Statement

Copyright © 2008, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in AAMAS '08 Proceedings of the 7th international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems - Volume 1,


presence, crowd simulation, egocentric features



Date Posted: 19 February 2016