Center for Human Modeling and Simulation

Document Type

Conference Paper

Date of this Version


Publication Source

Proceedings of Motion on Games (MIG '13)




MIG '13 was held November 6-7, 2013, in Dublin, Ireland.


Adventure role playing games (RPGs) provide players with increasingly expansive worlds, compelling storylines, and meaningful fictional character interactions. Despite the fast-growing richness of these worlds, the majority of interactions between the player and non-player characters (NPCs) still remain scripted. In this paper we propose using an NPC’s animations to reflect how they feel towards the player and as a proof of concept, investigate the potential for a straightforward gaze model to convey trust. Through two perceptual experiments, we find that viewers can distinguish between high and low trust animations, that viewers associate the gaze differences specifically with trust and not with an unrelated attitude (aggression), and that the effect can hold for different facial expressions and scene contexts, even when viewed by participants for a short (five second) clip length. With an additional experiment, we explore the extent that trust is uniquely conveyed over other attitudes associated with gaze, such as interest, unfriendliness, and admiration.

Copyright/Permission Statement

© ACM 2013. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here for your personal use. Not for redistribution. The definitive Version of Record was published in Motion on Games,


facial animation, procedural eye gaze, perception, trust

Additional Files

normoyle13GazeSupplement.pdf (468 kB)



Date Posted: 13 January 2016