Departmental Papers (ESE)

Stochastic User Equilibrium Model with Implicit Travel Time Budget Constraint

Tony E. Smith, University of Pennsylvania
Chao-Che Hsu, Tamkang University
Yueh-Ling Hsu, Kainan University

Document Type Journal Article

Copyright National Academy of Sciences. Reprinted from:
Smith, Tony E, Hsu, Chao-Che, & Hsu, Yueh-Ling. Stochastic User Equilibrium Model with Implicit Travel Time Budget Constraint. Transportation Research Record. Vol. 2085, no. 2085, pp. 95-103. 2008

Publisher URL:
DOI: 10.3141/2085-11


Although time constraints on travel behavior have been widely recognized, little effort has been made to incorporate such constraints into the traditional stochastic user equilibrium (SUE) framework. The major objective of this research is to fill this gap by incorporating travel time constraints into the SUE model by means of a nonlinear perceived travel time function. This modified model, designated the travel time budget model, focuses primarily on discretionary travel behavior (such as shopping trips) and hence also allows the possibility of deferring travel decisions by incorporating an additional choice alternative designated the shop-less-frequently alternative. This model is compared with the traditional SUE model by using a simulated travel scenario on a test network designed to reflect a practical planning situation. The simulation shows that when attractiveness levels are increased by the introduction of a new shopping opportunity, the presence of travel time constraints can lead to significantly smaller predicted travel volumes than those of the traditional SUE model. More important, it shows that the overall pattern of travel can be quite different. In particular, travel to the shopping destination with enhanced attractiveness can actually decrease for some origin locations. The findings suggest that when an attempt is made to evaluate the impact of planning alternatives on future traffic patterns, it is vital to consider not only the cost of time itself but also the time trade-offs between travel and other human activities.


Date Posted: 22 June 2010

This document has been peer reviewed.