Interdisciplinary Centers, Units, and Projects

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 3486
  • Publication
    A Comparative Evaluation of the Share-VDE Search System
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2024-07-03) Hahn, Jim; Ahnberg, Kayt; Giusti Serra, Liliana
    The Share-VDE search system (https://svde.org) shifts the library discovery paradigm from record-based indexing and retrieval to that of linked data entity exploration. This paper reports results of iterative testing of multiple versions of the Share-VDE interface. The testing included remote user experience (UX) interviews with a total of twenty participants across four rounds of tests spanning two years. The comparison among participants encompassed catalogers, students of all levels, and faculty. Synthesizing IFLA LRM user tasks with interface evaluation methods supported the qualitative inquiry into how linked data systems in general, and BIBFRAME specifically, can support search system objectives.
  • Publication
    Sociotechnical Automation Science: A Case Study in Developing and Augmenting an Ensemble Neural Network with Multiple LLMs for Subject Cataloging at the Penn Libraries
    (2024-06-26) Hahn, Jim
    The sociotechnical aspects of automation play a crucial role in the development of machine learning systems. Through deep collaboration with cataloging professionals at the Penn Libraries, we have created a set of subject indexing algorithms that are ensembled into a neural network. Librarians have evaluated multiple rounds of the algorithm outputs. By identifying the failure points in the neural network-based subject assignment process, we incorporated LLM tasks such as evaluating search result relevance, summarizing search results, and assessing topical assignments of synthetic summaries. Implementing LLM tasks draws on the linguistic strengths of LLMs, rather than world knowledge. The data processing is integrated into an Apache Airflow pipeline, allowing librarians to input an Excel file, which begins the workflow for generating candidate subject descriptions. These machine learning outputs are poised for a pilot test in production systems this summer.
  • Publication
    Penn Library's LJS 494 - [Marʼeh ha-ofanim] ... [etc.]. (Video Orientation)
    Porter, Dot
    Video Orientation to the University of Pennsylvania Library's LJS 494, a Hebrew translation of a fundamental treatise on medieval astronomy and cosmology that describes and illustrates the Ptolemaic model of a spherical earth divided into climactic zones at the center of the concentric spheres of the universe. Followed by Ruaḥ ha-ḥen, a 13th-century philosophical work that was a popular introduction to science, here attributed to Yehudah ibn Tibon. It has also been attributed to Jacob ben Abba Mari ben Samson Anatoli and Zeraḥyah ha-Yeṿani. Occasional marginal notes. Final page contains Hebrew notes and pen trials by various hands (f. 22v). Written in northern Italy in the second quarter of the 15th century (based on watermark information). Record on Franklin, with link to a digital copy: https://franklin.library.upenn.edu/catalog/FRANKLIN_9959630913503681 Record on Internet Archive, with a link to PDF: https://archive.org/details/ljs494
  • Publication
    Is the Growing Burden of Non-Communicable Diseases in India Preventable?
    (2024-06-19) Gaiha, Raghav; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Unnikrishnan, Vidhya
    Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) morbidity and mortality as shares of total morbidity and mortality have risen steadily in India and projected to surge rapidly. In 1990, NCDs accounted for 40% of all Indian mortality and are now projected to account for three quarters of all deaths by 2030. Currently, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory illness, and diabetes are the leading causes of death in India, accounting for almost 50% of all deaths. Underlying these rising shares are growing risks that are common to several NCDs. NCDs are chronic in nature and take a long time to develop. They are linked to aging and affluence and have replaced infectious diseases and malnutrition as the dominant causes of ill health and death in much of the world including India. Some NCDs cause others and create clusters of co-morbid conditions (e.g., diabetes can lead to kidney failure and blindness). Old-age morbidity is a rapidly worsening curse in India. The swift descent of the elderly in India (60 years +) into non-communicable diseases (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes) could have disastrous consequences in terms of impoverishment of families, excess mortality, lowering of investment and deceleration of economic growth. Indeed, the government must deal simultaneously with the rising fiscal burden of NCDs and substantial burden of infectious diseases. The present study seeks to answer three questions: Why has the prevalence of two NCDs, diabetes and heart diseases risen in recent years? Given the surge in these diseases, whether social protection policies and restructuring of medical services can mitigate such surges in the near future? A related but equally important concern is whether lifestyle and dietary changes could be induced to further prevent the rising burden of these NCDs. Our analysis is based on the only all-India panel survey-India Human Development survey that covers 2005 and 2012. This survey was conducted jointly by University of Maryland and National Council of Applied Economic Research, New Delhi. A robust econometric methodology-specifically, 2SLS- is used to address the endogeneity of key explanatory variables. The results here stress the need to make sure that pension and healthcare reforms are accompanied by greater awareness, expansion of old age pensions and public hospitals, and effective regulation of both public and private hospitals. Key words: NCDs, Diabetes, Heart diseases, Old age and other pensions, Hospitals, India
  • Publication
    Infant Mortality Expectation and Fertility Choice in Rural Malawi
    (2024-06) Delavande, Adeline; Kohler, Hans-Peter; Vergili, Ali
    For decades, population research has been interested in the complex relationship between child mortality and fertility, with a key focus on identifying replacement behavior (fertility response to experienced child mortality) and hoarding behavior (fertility response to expected child mortality). Using unique data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), we investigate the impact of individual-specific subjective infant mortality expectations on fertility choice. We instrument the potentially endogenous infant mortality expectations with the average of parents’ ratings of children’s health to address a potentially omitted variable bias such as parental taste for health. Consistent with the hoarding mechanism, we find that a 10 percentage point decrease in infant mortality expectations leads to a 14 percentage point decrease in the propensity to have a child in the next 2 years from a baseline propensity of 43%.
  • Publication
    The Household Equipment Revolution
    (2024-05-10) Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Greenwood, Jeremy; Guner, Nezih
    A brief historical overview of the household equipment revolution and the women who transformed the home in Germany and the United States.
  • Publication
    Food Coma is Real: The Effect of Digestive Fatigue on Adolescents' Cognitive Performance
    (2024-04-12) Hervé, Justine; Mani, Subha; Behrman, Jere; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Arindam, Nandi
    Food coma, also known as postprandial somnolence, is a commonly cited reason for experiencing reduced alertness during mid-afternoon worldwide. By using exogenous variation in the timing of tests and, hence, by extension, plausibly exogenous variation in the temporal distance between an individual’s last meal and the time of test, we examine the causal impact of postprandial somnolence on cognitive capacities. Analyzing novel time use data on ∼ 4,600 Indian adolescents and young adults, we find that testing within an hour after a meal reduces test-takers’ scores on English, native language, math, and Raven’s tests by 8, 8, 8, and 16 percent, respectively, compared to test-takers who took the tests more than an hour after their meal. We further find that the negative effect of postprandial somnolence on cognition operates through increased feelings of fatigue and depletion of cognitive resources that become more pronounced while dealing with more challenging test questions.
  • Dataset
    Extreme sea level at different global warming levels
    Tebaldi, Claudia
    Tebaldi, C., Ranasinghe, R., Vousdoukas, M. et al. Extreme sea levels at different global warming levels. Nat. Clim. Chang. 11, 746–751 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-021-01127-1 (as shown in Fig. 1 b,d,f and Fig. 2 top panel for 7,283 locations). Global warming levels reached by 2100 causing a present-day 100-year extreme sea level event to become at least an annual event (for central value and low and upper bounds), and extended mean value of the difference between current 100-yr and the 1-yr events. The numbers from 1 to 9 along the 3rd, 4th and 5th columns correspond to the warming levels in the legend of Figure 1: 1.5, 2, 2+, 3, 4, 5, none (The + sign associated with 2 and 5 °C indicates projections that include SEJ-derived estimates of ice-sheet contribution to RSLC.) See also the data in an interactive way at the Perry World House Global Climate Security Atlas
  • Dataset
    Return period (years) in future (2071–2100) for discharge corresponding to a 30-year flood in the past (1971–2000), for CMIP6 under the ssp585 scenario
    Hirabayashi, Yukiko
    Hirabayashi, Y., Tanoue, M., Sasaki, O. et al. Global exposure to flooding from the new CMIP6 climate model projections. Sci Rep 11, 3740 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83279-w (Fig. 1) Projected change in river flood frequency under the ssp585 climate change scenario. Multi-model median return period (years) in future (2071–2100) for discharge corresponding to a 100-year flood in the past (1971–2000), for CMIP6 under the ssp585 (SSP5-RCP8.5) scenario. See also data in an interactive way at the Perry World House Global Climate Security Atlas https://global.upenn.edu/perryworldhouse/global-climate-security-atlas
  • Dataset
    Return period (years) in future (2071–2100) for discharge corresponding to a 10-year flood in the past (1971–2000), for CMIP6 under the ssp585 scenario
    Hirabayashi, Yukiko
    Hirabayashi, Y., Tanoue, M., Sasaki, O. et al. Global exposure to flooding from the new CMIP6 climate model projections. Sci Rep 11, 3740 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83279-w (Fig. 1) Projected change in river flood frequency under the ssp585 climate change scenario. Multi-model median return period (years) in future (2071–2100) for discharge corresponding to a 100-year flood in the past (1971–2000), for CMIP6 under the ssp585 (SSP5-RCP8.5) scenario. See also data in an interactive way at the Perry World House Global Climate Security Atlas https://global.upenn.edu/perryworldhouse/global-climate-security-atlas