Biblical Criticism to the End of the Second Christian Century
History of Religion
The phenomenon which today is popularly referred to as "higher criticism", in so far as it applies to the Old Testament, probably first manifested itself with the publication in 1753 of Jean Astruc's work on Genesis.3 It is a phenomenon which bears more or less of a scientific character, and for the most part is being carried out by men of culture and education. The roots of this modern phenomenon, however, go far back beyond the time of Astruc. Indeed, what is spoken of today as higher criticism is in reality merely the modern phase or manifestation of an attitude or process which goes back to days of antiquity. Criticism of the Bible probably appeared as soon as the Bible became known. It is the purpose of this thesis to trace the history of such criticism, as it refers to the Old Testament, from the beginning of this era down to the end of the second Christian century.
Solomon L. Skoss