Electroanatomic Mapping to Determine Scar Regions in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation
Gaussian process regression interpolation
Electrical and Computer Engineering
Left atrial voltage maps are routinely acquired during electroanatomic mapping in patients undergoing catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF). For patients, who have prior catheter ablation when they are in sinus rhythm (SR), the voltage map can be used to identify low voltage areas (LVAs) using a threshold of 0.2 - 0.45 mV. However, such a voltage threshold for maps acquired during AF has not been well established. A prerequisite for defining a voltage threshold is to maximize the topologically matched LVAs between the electroanatomic mapping acquired during AF and SR. This paper demonstrates a new technique to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the matched LVA. This is achieved by computing omni-directional bipolar voltages and applying Gaussian Process Regression based interpolation to derive the AF map. The proposed method is evaluated on a test cohort of 7 male patients, and a total of 46,589 data points were included in analysis. The LVAs in the posterior left atrium and pulmonary vein junction are determined using the standard method and the proposed method. Overall, the proposed method showed patient-specific sensitivity and specificity in matching LVAs of 75.70% and 65.55% for a geometric mean of 70.69%. On average, there was an improvement of 3.00% in the geometric mean, 7.88% improvement in sensitivity, 0.30% improvement in specificity compared to the standard method. The results show that the proposed method is an improvement in matching LVA. This may help develop the voltage threshold to better identify LVA in the left atrium for patients in AF.