Now showing 1 - 10 of 69
PublicationPhase and Amplitude of Fractional-Order Intermediate Wave(1999-06-05) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderThe behavior of the amplitude and phase of the "intermediate wave", which we previously introduced as certain fractional solutions to the standard scalar Helmholtz equation, is addressed and presented. These waves effectively behave as intermediate cases between the canonical cases of the plane-wave and cylindrical wave propagation. We show that the amplitude and phase of such intermediate wave undergo interesting "evolutions" as the fractionalization parameter ν attains fractional values between zero and unity. Possible extension into the novel concept of intermediate guided-wave geometries is just speculated. PublicationCloaking a Sensor(2009-06-08) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderWe propose the general concept of cloaking a sensor without affecting its capability to receive, measure, and observe an incoming signal. This may be obtained by using a plasmonic sensor, based on cloaking, made of materials available in nature at infrared and optical frequencies, or realizable as a metamaterial at lower frequencies. The result is a sensing system that may receive and transmit information, while its presence is not perceived by the surrounding, which may be of fundamental importance in a wide range of biological, optics, physics, and engineering applications. PublicationTransformation Electronics: Tailoring the Effective Mass of Electrons(2012-10-08) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderThe speed of integrated circuits is ultimately limited by the mobility of electrons or holes, which depend on the effective mass in a semiconductor. Here, building on an analogy with electromagnetic metamaterials and transformation optics, we describe a transport regime in a semiconductor superlattice characterized by extreme anisotropy of the effective mass and a low intrinsic resistance to movement—with zero effective mass—along some preferred direction of electron motion. We theoretically demonstrate that such a regime may permit an ultrafast, extremely strong electron response, and significantly high conductivity, which, notably, may be weakly dependent on the temperature at low temperatures. These ideas may pave the way for faster electronic devices and detectors and functional materials with a strong electrical response in the infrared regime. PublicationTheory of linear chains of metamaterial/plasmonic particles as subdiffraction optical nanotransmission lines(2006-11-15) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderHere we discuss the theory and analyze in detail the guidance properties of linear arrays of metamaterial/ plasmonic small particles as nanoscale optical nanotransmission lines, including the effect of material loss. Under the assumption of dipolar approximation for each particle, which is shown to be accurate in the geometry of interest here, we develop closed-form analytical expressions for the eigenmodal dispersion in such arrays. With the material loss included, the conditions for minimal absorption and maximum bandwidth are derived analytically by studying the properties of such dispersion relations. Numerical examples with realistic materials, including their ohmic absorption and frequency dispersion, are presented. The analytical properties discussed here also provide some further physical insights into the mechanisms underlying the subdiffraction guidance in such arrays and their fundamental physical limits. The possibility of guiding beams with subwavelength lateral confinement and reasonably low decay is discussed, offering the possible use of this technique at microwave, infrared, and optical frequencies. Interpretation of these results in terms of nanocircuit concepts is presented, and possible extension to two- and three-dimensional nanotransmission line optical metamaterials is also foreseen. PublicationFourier Optics on Graphene(2012-02-27) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderUsing numerical simulations, here, we demonstrate that a single sheet of graphene with properly designed inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity distributions can act as a convex lens for focusing and collimating the transverse-magnetic (TM) surface plasmon polariton (SPP) surface waves propagating along the graphene. Consequently, we show that the graphene can act as a platform for obtaining spatial Fourier transform of infrared (IR) SPP signals. This may lead to rebirth of the field of Fourier optics on a 1-atom-thick structure. PublicationNonlocal Transformation Optics(2012-02-10) Castaldi, Giuseppe; Galdi, Vincenzo; Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderWe show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell’s equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive “blueprints” of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects and provide a physically incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equifrequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials. PublicationThe Measured Electric Field Spatial Distribution within a Metamaterial Sub-Wavelength Cavity Resonator(2007-06-01) Hand, Thomas; Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderThrough experimental investigation, a thin subwavelength cavity resonator was physically realized using a bilayer structure composed of air and a negative permeability metamaterial structure one unit cell in thickness. We designed and built the metamaterial slab with periodic metallic ring structures and measured the spatial electric field magnitude in a cavity formed from this slab and a region of air, showing that a subwavelength cavity can be realized. The measured electric field magnitude distribution in the cavity matched very well with effective medium theory, showing that even a slab one unit cell in thickness may be effectively equivalent to a thin homogeneous medium as far as the construction of a sub-wavelength cavity is concerned, provided that the unit cell size is significantly smaller than the free space wavelength. PublicationBoosting Molecular Fluorescence with Plasmonic Nanolauncher(2009-07-21) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderMolecular emission enhancement is generally obtained by proper coupling with external resonances. Here we propose the idea of a plasmonic nanolauncher, i.e., a metamaterial-inspired ultranarrow channel at cutoff. Its peculiar operation provides uniform phase and drastic amplitude increase all over the channel, allowing high emission enhancement independent of the position of an individual or group of molecules along the channel, and of its length and geometry. This may provide a fascinating mechanism for efficient molecular detection and enhanced optical fluorescence. PublicationOn the role of fractional calculus in electromagnetic theory(1997-08-01) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, NaderWe have applied the concept of fractional derivatives/integrals in several specific electromagnetic problems, and have obtained promising results and ideas that demonstrate that these mathematical operators can be interesting and useful tools in electromagnetic theory. We give a brief review of the general principles, definitions, and several features of fractional derivatives/integrals, and then we review some of our ideas and findings in exploring potential applications of fractional calculus in some electromagnetic problems. PublicationTheory of simultaneous control of orientation and translational motion of nanorods using positive dielectrophoretic forces(2005-12-30) Engheta, Nader; Engheta, Nader; Evoy, StephaneThe manipulation of individual submicron-sized objects has been the focus of significant efforts over the last few years. A method to arbitrarily move and orient a set of rod-shaped conductive particles in a region defined by a set of electrodes using positive dielectrophoretic forces is presented. While the orientation of each particle is directly specified through the angle of the local electric field, its position is indirectly controlled through the applied force. Each electrode is approximated as an unknown point charge and an induced dipole. Since each induced dipole results from the combination of all other sources, a set of linear constraints are derived to enforce the self-consistency of the system. Additionally, the force and orientation of each particle also form an additional set of linear constraints. This combined set of constraints is then solved numerically to yield the sources required to induce the desired orientation and motion of each particle. It is observed that the minimum number of electrodes that can be used to control a set of N particles is 4N+1. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the control of a single nanorod (diameter of 70 nm; length of 1.4μm) in the midst of a realistic electrode array can be accomplished under practical conditions. In addition, such control of orientation and motion can be achieved over an ample region in the vicinity of each rod.