Caplan, Arthur L.

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 31
  • Publication
    Successes and Failures of Hospital Ethics Committees: A National Survey of Ethics Committee Chairs
    (2002-01-01) McGee, Glenn E; Caplan, Arthur L.; Spanogle, Joshua P; Asch, David A.; Penny, Dina
    In 1992, the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) passed a mandate that all its approved hospitals put in place a means for addressing ethical concerns. Although the particular process the hospital uses to address such concerns—ethics consultant, ethics forum, ethics committee—may vary, the hospital or healthcare ethics committee (HEC) is used most often. In a companion study to that reported here, we found that in 1998 over 90% of U.S. hospitals had ethics committees, compared to just 1% in 1983, and that many have some and a few have sweeping clinical powers in hospitals.
  • Publication
    Halfway there: the struggle to manage conflicts of interest
    (2007-03-01) Caplan, Arthur L.
    Conflicts of interest are known to create problems for the integrity of biomedical research. The editors of the JCI have set out a rigorous policy to help manage conflicts. But they focus only on financially generated conflicts. Here I identify other sources of conflict and offer some suggestions for their management.
  • Publication
    Protecting Subjects' Interests in Genetics Research
    (2002-04-01) Merz, Jon F; Magnus, David; Caplan, Arthur L.; Cho, Mildred K
    Biomedical researchers often assume that sponsors, subjects, families, and disease-associated advocacy groups contribute to research solely because of altruism. This view fails to capture the diverse interests of many participants in the emerging research enterprise. In the past two decades, patient groups have become increasingly active in the promotion and facilitation of genetics research. Simultaneously, a significant shift of academic biomedical science toward commercialization has occurred, spurred by U.S. federal policy changes.
  • Publication
    Bioethics and the Brain
    (2003-06-01) Foster, Kenneth R; Wolpe, Paul Root; Caplan, Arthur L.
    Microelectronics and medical imaging are bringing us closer to a world where mind reading is possible and blindness banished - but we may not want to live there. New ways of imaging the human brain and new developments in microelectronics are providing unprecedented capabilities for monitoring the brain in real time and even for controlling brain function. The technologies are novel, but some of the questions that they will raise are not. Electrical activity in the brain can reveal the contents of a person's memory. New imaging techniques might allow physician to detect devastating diseases long before those diseases become clinically apparent. And researchers may one day find brain activity that correlates with behavior patterns such as tendencies toward alcoholism, aggression, pedophilia, or racism. But how reliable will the information be, how should it be used, and what will it do to our notion of privacy? Meanwhile, microelectronics is making access to the brain a two-way street. The same electrical stimulation technologies that allow some deaf people to hear could be fashioned to control behavior as well. What are the appropriate limits to the use of this technology? Ethicists are only now beginning to take note of these developments in neuroscience.
  • Publication
    Beyond “Sicko”— Thoughts on Health System Reform
    (2007-01-01) Caplan, Arthur L; Aiken, Linda H; Pauly, Mark V; Grande, David T; Rosoff, Arnold J
    The documentary “Sicko” has reignited the debate on health care reform in the U.S. Michael Moore’s film raised no new issues, but put faces and stories to longstanding problems of access to health care in this country. With a presidential election looming next year, it is possible that the political and public will can be catalyzed to change the health care system. In this Issue Brief, we asked five LDI Senior Fellows to comment on some of the issues raised by “Sicko,” and to offer their thoughts on the prospects for health system reform.
  • Publication
    Does the biomedical revolution spell the end of sport?
    (2008-09-18) Caplan, Arthur L
  • Publication
    Straining Their Brains: Why the Case Against Enhancement is Not Persuasive.
    (2004-09-01) Caplan, Arthur L.; McHugh, Paul R
    Your kid’s schoolwork not up to par? Looking for Mr. or Ms. Right? Any other problems caused by a mind’s eye seemingly not quite on the ball? Answers might lie in a brain-enhancing pill. Some argue this is merely better living through chemistry and in line with humanity’s self-improving actions throughout history, but others suggest that quick-fix medications could well distort the very things that make us human. Here a leading bioethicist squares off with a member of the President’s Council on Bioethics on the controversy about pursuing better brains with a little help from biotechnology.
  • Publication
    Organ Transplants: The Cost of Success
    (1983-12-01) Caplan, Arthur L.
    Just thirty years after the first kidney transplant between identical twins was undertaken in 1954, organ transplantation has come of age. Today many transplant surgeons have attained success rates of over 80 percent survival for at least five years among those who have received kidneys from live related donors. The survival rate for those who receive cadaver kidneys five years after surgery is 60 percent. More than 95 percent of corneal transplant recipients have their sight restored.
  • Publication
    What is immoral about eugenics?
    (1999-11-13) Caplan, Arthur L.; McGee, Glenn; Magnus, David
    It is a "given" in discussions of genetic engineering that no sensible person can be in favour of eugenics. The main reason for this presumption is that so much horror, misery, and mayhem have been carried out in the name of eugenics in the 20th century that no person with any moral sense could think otherwise. In fact, the abysmal history of murder and sterilisation undertaken in the name of race hygiene and the "improvement" of the human species again and again in this century is so overpowering that the risk of reoccurrence, sliding down what has proved time and time again to be an extremely slick, slippery slope, does seem enough to bring all ethical argument in favour of eugenics to an end.
  • Publication
    Professional Arrogance and Public Misunderstanding
    (1988-05-01) Caplan, Arthur L.
    Any assessment of the impact of required request legislation on organ and tissue procurement must begin by defining required request laws. Of the forty-one states that have passed such laws during the past three years, approximately, half have enacted strong required request policies. These states have mandated that hospital administrators be responsible for insuring that next-of-kin or legal guardians are asked about their willingness to donate organs and tissues of the deceased when a death has been pronounced in a hospital setting.