Barton, Elisabeth R
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PublicationChronic Losartan Administration Reduces Mortality and Preserves Cardiac but Not Skeletal Muscle Function in Dystrophic Mice(2011-06-22) Bish, Lawrence T; Sleeper, Margaret M; Bish, Lawrence T; Yarchoan, Mark; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H. Lee; Morine, Kevin J; Acosta, Pedro; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H. LeeDuchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a degenerative disorder affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle for which there is no effective therapy. Angiotension receptor blockade (ARB) has excellent therapeutic potential in DMD based on recent data demonstrating attenuation of skeletal muscle disease progression during 6–9 months of therapy in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Since cardiac-related death is major cause of mortality in DMD, it is important to evaluate the effect of any novel treatment on the heart. Therefore, we evaluated the long-term impact of ARB on both the skeletal muscle and cardiac phenotype of the mdx mouse. Mdx mice received either losartan (0.6 g/L) (n = 8) or standard drinking water (n = 9) for two years, after which echocardiography was performed to assess cardiac function. Skeletal muscle weight, morphology, and function were assessed. Fibrosis was evaluated in the diaphragm and heart by Trichrome stain and by determination of tissue hydroxyproline content. By the study endpoint, 88% of treated mice were alive compared to only 44% of untreated (p = 0.05). No difference in skeletal muscle morphology, function, or fibrosis was noted in losartan-treated animals. Cardiac function was significantly preserved with losartan treatment, with a trend towards reduction in cardiac fibrosis. We saw no impact on the skeletal muscle disease progression, suggesting that other pathways that trigger fibrosis dominate over angiotensin II in skeletal muscle long term, unlike the situation in the heart. Our study suggests that ARB may be an important prophylactic treatment for DMD-associated cardiomyopathy, but will not impact skeletal muscle disease. PublicationOverexpression of SERCA1a in the mdx Diaphragm Reduces Susceptibility to Contraction-Induced Damage(2010-12-10) Sleeper, Margaret M; Barton, Elisabeth R; Morine, Kevin J; Sweeney, H. Lee; Sleeper, Margaret M; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H. LeeAlthough the precise pathophysiological mechanism of muscle damage in dystrophin-deficient muscle remains disputed, calcium appears to be a critical mediator of the dystrophic process. Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and mouse models of dystrophin deficiency exhibit extensive abnormalities of calcium homeostasis, which we hypothesized would be mitigated by increased expression of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump. Neonatal adeno-associated virus gene transfer of sarcoplasmic reticulum ATPase 1a to the mdx diaphragm decreased centrally located nuclei and resulted in reduced susceptibility to eccentric contraction-induced damage at 6 months of age. As the diaphragm is the mouse muscle most representative of human disease, these results provide impetus for further investigation of therapeutic strategies aimed at enhanced cytosolic calcium removal. PublicationSystemic Myostatin Inhibition via Liver-Targeted Gene Transfer in Normal and Dystrophic Mice(2010-02-11) Bish, Lawrence T; Sleeper, Margaret M; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H. Lee; Pendrak, Klara; Sleeper, Margaret M; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H. LeeBackground: Myostatin inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy to maintain muscle mass in a variety of disorders, including the muscular dystrophies, cachexia, and sarcopenia. Previously described approaches to blocking myostatin signaling include injection delivery of inhibitory propeptide domain or neutralizing antibodies. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a unique method of myostatin inhibition utilizing recombinant adeno-associated virus to overexpress a secretable dominant negative myostatin exclusively in the liver of mice. Systemic myostatin inhibition led to increased skeletal muscle mass and strength in control C57 Bl/6 mice and in the dystrophin-deficient mdx model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The mdx soleus, a mouse muscle more representative of human fiber type composition, demonstrated the most profound improvement in force production and a shift toward faster myosin-heavy chain isoforms. Unexpectedly, the 11-month-old mdx diaphragm was not rescued by long-term myostatin inhibition. Further, mdx mice treated for 11 months exhibited cardiac hypertrophy and impaired function in an inhibitor dose–dependent manner. Conclusions/Significance: Liver-targeted gene transfer of a myostatin inhibitor is a valuable tool for preclinical investigation of myostatin blockade and provides novel insights into the long-term effects and shortcomings of myostatin inhibition on striated muscle.