Cappella, Joseph N

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 24
  • Publication
    The Biological Origins of Automated Patterns of Human Interaction
    (1991-02-01) Cappella, Joseph N
    The biological origins of automated patterns of human interaction are explored. Automated patterns of interaction are distinguished from deliberate patterns. Automated patterns consist of two particular types: stimulation regulation and emotional responsiveness. Evidence for the biological origins of these patterns is obtained by studying the early interactions of infants and neonates, surveying the ethological parallels, exploring the evolutionary adaptiveness of the specific patterns, and ascertaining physiological, psychopharmacological, and brain mechanisms responsible for the patterns. Although circumstantial, the case for a biological basis for stimulation regulation and emotional responsiveness is very suggestive.
  • Publication
    The Social Diffusion of Influence Among Adolescents: Group Interaction in a Chat Room Environment About Antidrug Advertisements
    (2006-01-01) Cappella, Joseph N; David, Clarissa; Fishbein, Martin
    One route to influence in mass communication campaigns to reduce risky behavior is through interpersonal discussion of the content of the campaign and other behaviors pertinent to those targeted by the campaign. The goal of this study was to test the effects of online group interaction among adolescents about anti-marijuana advertisements on relevant attitudes and behaviors. A between subjects post only experimental design was used to test two crossed factors, online chat and strength of arguments in antidrug ads. A sample of 535 students was randomly assigned to one of four conditions: chat and strong argument ads, chat and weak argument ads, no chat and strong argument ads, and no chat and weak argument ads. The group interactions about antidrug ads lead to negative effects such that those who chatted reported more pro-marijuana attitudes and subjective normative beliefs than those who just viewed the ads. No support was found for the hypothesis that strong argument ads would result in more antidrug beliefs relative to weak argument ads in either the chat or the no chat conditions. Overall, these findings suggest that viewing antidrug ads and discussing them with peers may result in deleterious effects in adolescents.
  • Publication
    Lower Nicotine Cigarettes may not Lower Harm
    (2006-11-17) Strasser, Andrew A.; Lerman, Caryn; Cappella, Joseph N
    In 2005, nearly 21% of American adults smoked cigarettes, and 81% of them smoked every day. For smokers unable or unwilling to quit, tobacco products that reduce the adverse health effects of smoking may be an attractive option. Potentially reduced exposure products (PREPs) were developed by the tobacco industry in response to smokers’ health concerns. PREPs purportedly lower the tar and/or nicotine levels of cigarettes, although the actual harm reduced remains questionable. One of the most recent additions to this product class are cigarettes that use genetically modified tobacco to reduce nicotine levels. This Issue Brief summarizes studies that investigate [1] how this product is used and [2] the messages smokers take away from product marketing. These complementary studies send a cautionary signal about the ability of these new cigarettes to reduce the harmful effects of smoking.
  • Publication
    Normative and Informational Influences in Online Political Discussions
    (2006-02-01) Price, Vincent; Cappella, Joseph N.; Nir, Lilach
    How do the statements made by people in online political discussions affect other people's willingness to express their own opinions, or argue for them? And how does group interaction ultimately shape individual opinions? We examine carefully whether and how patterns of group discussion shape (a) individuals' expressive behavior within those discussions and (b) changes in personal opinions. This research proposes that the argumentative "climate" of group opinion indeed affects postdiscussion opinions, and that a primary mechanism responsible for this effect is an intermediate influence on individual participants' own expressions during the online discussions. We find support for these propositions in data from a series of 60 online group discussions, involving ordinary citizens, about the tax plans offered by rival U.S. presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore in 2000.
  • Publication
    Behavioral and Judged Coordination in Adult Informal Social Interactions: Vocal and Kinesic Indicators
    (1997) Cappella, Joseph N
    Coordination in social interaction means that persons adjust their actions to those of their partners. Common methods for measuring coordination include judgments and behavioral covariation. Sixteen 1-min segments of interaction were chosen (8 high and 8 low in behavioral coordination). In Study 1, 51 people judged the 16 segments, rating each for coordination. Study 2 (N = 17) used different items. Study 3 (N = 22) replicated Study 2 without sound and with a mosaic pattern imposed on the faces. Results indicated judges were reliable, able to distinguish high from low coordination interactions on the basis of 1-min slices for male but not female dyads. Segments judged to be coordinated had partners smiling in synchrony but with complementary patterns of gazing and gesturing. Both measures correlated with conversational satisfaction, but only behavioral coordination predicted attraction.
  • Publication
    The Role of Distal Variables in Behavior Change: Effects of Adolescents' Risk for Marijuana Use on Intention to Use Marijuana
    (2004-01-01) Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin; Yzer, Marco C; Hornik, Robert C; Sayeed, Sarah; Ahern, K. Kirkland
    This study uses an integrative model of behavioral prediction as an account of adolescents' intention to use marijuana regularly. Adolescents' risk for using marijuana regularly is examined to test the theoretical assumption that distal variables affect intention indirectly. Risk affects intention indirectly if low-risk and high-risk adolescents differ on the strength with which beliefs about marijuana are held, or if they differ on the relative importance of predictors of intention. A model test confirmed that the effect of risk on intention is primarily indirect. Adolescents at low and high risk particularly differed in beliefs concerning social costs and costs to self-esteem. Not surprisingly, at-risk adolescents took a far more positive stand toward using marijuana regularly than did low-risk adolescents. On a practical level, the integrative model proved to be an effective tool for predicting intention to use marijuana, identifying key variables for interventions, and discriminating between target populations in terms of determinants of marijuana use.
  • Publication
    Bridging the Disciplinary Divide
    (1996-03-01) Jamieson, Kathleen Hall; Cappella, Joseph N
    Academic disciplines see research questions through the biases created by their presuppositions and preferred methods. Political science and communication are no different. In the past, political scientists more often focused on outcomes and the social and economic judgments that seemed to shape them while communication researchers have focused more intensely on the structure and content of the messages that make up campaigns. To understand the role of communication campaigns on political outcomes (and vice versa) requires information on both message content and effects
  • Publication
    Editor's Introduction: Theoretical Approaches to Communication Campaigns
    (2003-01-01) Cappella, Joseph N
    The articles published in this symposium make contributions to an increased understanding of the theoretical bases for communication campaigns. They add to a growing literature that aims to move communication campaigns from a formulaic craft to a theory-driven, but practical, endeavor (Hornik, 2002a; Rice & Atkin, 2001; Zaller, 1992).
  • Publication
    Talk and Silence Sequences in Informal Conversations II
    (1980-12-01) Cappella, Joseph N
    Three models describing the structure of talk and silence sequences within and across conversations presented in a previous report (Cappella, 1979) are tested. The Markov model, describing talk and silence sequences within a conversation, is found to be a valid representation on a dyad-by-dyad basis. The Independent Decision (ID) model shows some predictive validity between conversations, although its "fit" within the conversation is less than the Markov model. The Incremental model in relaxing the consistency-across-conversation assumption of the ID model finds differences due to switching of partners in the probability of breaking or continuing mutual silences and in the probability of continuing to hold the floor. The implication for deriving dyadic interaction patterns from individual interaction styles are explored.
  • Publication
    Bridging Diversity Through Problem-Based Collaboration
    (2011-01-01) Cappella, Joseph N