Graves, Dana T

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 23
  • Publication
    Abnormal Cell Repsonses and Role of TNF-α in Impaired Diabetic Wound Healing
    (2013-01-01) Xu, Fanxing; Zhang, Chenying; Graves, Dana T
    Impaired diabetic wound healing constitutes a major health problem. The impaired healing is caused by complex factors such as abnormal keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, abnormal macrophage polarization, impaired recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and decreased vascularization. Diabetes-enhanced and prolonged expression of TNF-α also contributes to impaired healing. In this paper, we discuss the abnormal cell responses in diabetic wound healing and the contribution of TNF-α.
  • Publication
    A Long-Term siRNA Strategy Regulates Fibronectin Overexpression and Improves Vascular Lesions in Retinas of Diabetic Rats
    (2011-12-06) Roy, Sumon; Nasser, Sigrid; Graves, Dana T; Roy, Sayon
    Purpose: A sustained gene modulatory strategy is necessary for regulating abnormal gene expression in diabetic retinopathy, a long-term complication. We investigated the efficacy of a small interference RNA (siRNA) strategy in mediating the long-term downregulatory effect of fibronectin (FN) overexpression in vivo. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were intravitreally injected with 3 µM of FN-siRNA at six week intervals over a period of 4.5 months. Retinal FN protein expression, vascular basement membrane (BM) thickness, and retinal vascular cell loss were assessed by western blot, electron microscopy, and retinal trypsin digest, respectively. Results: Retinal FN expression and BM thickness were significantly increased in diabetic rat retinas compared to those in non-diabetic control rats (188±14.2% of control versus 100±7.4% of control, p Conclusions: These findings suggest that BM thickening is an important target for preventing vascular cell loss in a diabetic retina, and that the siRNA approach could be useful for long-term gene modulation in diabetic retinopathy.
  • Publication
    FOXO1, TGF-β Regulation and Wound Healing
    (2014-09-15) Hameedaldeen, Alhassan; Liu, Jian; Batres, Angelika; Graves, Gabrielle S; Graves, Dana T
    Re-epithelialization is a complex process that involves migration and proliferation of keratinocytes, in addition to the production of cytokines and growth factors that affect other cells. The induction of transcription factors during these processes is crucial for successful wound healing. The transcription factor forkhead boxO-1 (FOXO1) has recently been found to be an important regulator of wound healing. In particular, FOXO1 has significant effects through regulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) expression and protecting keratinocytes from oxidative stress. In the absence of FOXO1, there is increased oxidative damage, reduced TGF-β1 expression, reduced migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and increased keratinocytes apoptosis leading to impaired re-epithelialization of wounds.
  • Publication
    FOXO Transcription Factors: Their Clinical Significance and Regulation
    (2014-04-03) Wang, Yu; Zhou, Yanmin; Graves, Dana T
    Members of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO) have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli.
  • Publication
    FOXO1 Promotes Wound Healing Through the Up-Regulation of TGF-β1 and Prevention of Oxidative Stress
    (2013-10-28) Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Xu, Fanxing; Zhang, Chenying; Tian, Chen; Pacios, Sandra; Graves, Dana T
    Keratinocyte mobilization is a critical aspect of wound re-epithelialization, but the mechanisms that control its precise regulation remain poorly understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) has a negative effect on healing because of its capacity to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis. Contrary to expectations, FOXO1 is required for keratinocyte transition to a wound-healing phenotype that involves increased migration and up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream targets, integrin-α3 and -β6 and MMP-3 and -9. Furthermore, we show that FOXO1 functions in keratinocytes to reduce oxidative stress, which is necessary to maintain cell migration and prevent cell death in a TGF-β1–independent manner. Thus, our studies identify a novel function for FOXO1 in coordinating the response of keratinocytes to wounding through up-regulation of TGF-β1 and other factors needed for keratinocyte migration and protection against oxidative stress, which together promote migration and decrease apoptosis.
  • Publication
    Role of Fas and Treg Cells in Fracture Healing as Characterized in the Fas-Deficient (lpr) Mouse Model of Lupus
    (2014-06-01) Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Daukss, Dana M; Belkina, Anna C; Kakar, Sanjeev; Wigner, Nathan A; Crusher, Daniel; Graves, Dana T; Einhorn, Thomas; Morgan, Elise; Gerstenfeld, Louis C
    Previous studies showed that loss of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) signaling delayed fracture healing by delaying chondrocyte apoptosis and cartilage resorption. Mechanistic studies showed that TNFα induced Fas expression within chondrocytes; however, the degree to which chondrocyte apoptosis is mediated by TNFα alone or dependent on the induction of Fas is unclear. This question was addressed by assessing fracture healing in Fas-deficient B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice. Loss of Fas delayed cartilage resorption but also lowered bone fraction in the calluses. The reduced bone fraction was related to elevated rates of coupled bone turnover in the B6.MRL/Faslpr/J calluses, as evidenced by higher osteoclast numbers and increased osteogenesis. Analysis of the apoptotic marker caspase 3 showed fewer positive chondrocytes and osteoclasts in calluses of B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice. To determine if an active autoimmune state contributed to increased bone turnover, the levels of activated T cells and Treg cells were assessed. B6.MRL/Faslpr/J mice had elevated Treg cells in both spleens and bones of B6.MRL/Faslpr/J but decreased percentage of activated T cells in bone tissues. Fracture led to ∼30% to 60% systemic increase in Treg cells in both wild-type and B6.MRL/Faslpr/J bone tissues during the period of cartilage formation and resorption but either decreased (wild type) or left unchanged (B6.MRL/Faslpr/J) the numbers of activated T cells in bone. These results show that an active autoimmune state is inhibited during the period of cartilage resorption and suggest that iTreg cells play a functional role in this process. These data show that loss of Fas activity specifically in chondrocytes prolonged the life span of chondrocytes and that Fas synergized with TNFα signaling to mediate chondrocyte apoptosis. Conversely, loss of Fas systemically led to increased osteoclast numbers during later periods of fracture healing and increased osteogenesis. These findings suggest that retention of viable chondrocytes locally inhibits osteoclast activity or matrix proteolysis during cartilage resorption.
  • Publication
    Effect of Bacteria on the Wound Healing Behavior of Oral Epithelial Cells
    (2014-02-21) Bhattacharya, Rupa; Xu, Fanxing; Dong, Guangyu; Li, Shuai; Tian, Chen; Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Graves, Dana T
    Wounded tissue offers opportunity to microflora to adhere, colonize, invade and infect surrounding healthy tissue. The bacteria of the oral cavity have the potential to alter the wound healing process by interacting with keratinocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate mechanisms through which oral bacteria may influence re-epithelialization by interacting with gingival keratinocytes. By an in vitro scratch assay we demonstrate that primary gingival keratinocytes have impaired closure when exposed to two well characterized oral bacteria, P. gingivalis, and to a lesser extent, F. nucleatum. P. gingivalis reduced wound closure by ~40%, which was partially dependent on proteolytic activity, and bacteria was still present within infected cells 9 days later despite exposure to bacteria for only 24 h. Both oral bacteria caused keratinocyte apoptosis at the wound site with cell death being greatest at the wound edge. P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum adversely affected cell proliferation and the effect also had a spatial component being most striking at the edge. The impact of the bacteria was long lasting even when exposure was brief. Cell migration was compromised in bacteria challenged keratinocytes with P. gingivalis having more severe effect (pF. nucleatum. Quantitative real time PCR of bacteria challenged cells showed that P. gingivalis and to a lesser extent F. nucleatum significantly downregulated cell cycle genes cyclin1, CDK1, and CDK4 (pP. gingivalis (p<0.05).
  • Publication
    FOXO1 Deletion in Keratinocytes Improves Diabetic Wound Healing through MMP9 Regulation
    (2017-09-05) Zhang, Chenying; Jeon, Hyeran H; Lim, Jason; Xu, Fanxing; Tian, Chen; Miao, Fang; Graves, Dana T; Hameedaldeen, Alhassan
    Keratinocyte migration is a key aspect of re-epithelialization during wound healing. Matric metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) contributes to this process and deificiencies in the MMP9 lead to impaired healing. Inappropriate expression of MMP9 also contributes to impaired re-epithelialization. Previously we demonstrated that FOXO1 was activated in wound healing but to higher levels in diabetic wounds. To address mechanisms of impaired re-epithelialization we examined MMP0 expression in vivo in full thickness dermal scalp wounds creared in experimental K14.Cre+.Foxo1L/L mice with lineage-specific Cre recombinase deletion of floxed FOXO1 and compared the results to control littermates. MMP9 was induced during wound healing but at a significantly higher level in diabetic compared to normal wounds. FOXO1 deletion substantially blocked this increase. By chromatin immunoprecipitation FOXO1 was shown to bind to the MMP9 promoter, FOXO1 overexpression increased MMP9 transcriptional activity and increased MMP9 expression simulated by high glucose that was blocked by FOXO1 deletion or FOXO1 knockdown. We also show for the first time that high glucose impairs keratinocyte migration by inducing high levels of MMP9 expression in diabetic wound healing, which represents a novel mechanism for impaired re-epithelialization in diabetic wounds.
  • Publication
    FOXO1 Plays an Essential Role in Apoptosis of Retinal Pericytes
    (2010-03-10) Alikhani, Mani; Roy, Sayon; Graves, Dana T
    Purpose: An early and significant event in diabetic retinopathy is the loss of retinal microvascular pericytes. Studies were performed to investigate pathways through which an advanced glycation endproduct and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α stimulate apoptosis in retinal pericytes through the activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). Methods: Human retinal pericytes were stimulated by carboxymethyllysine (CML)-collagen, an advanced glycation endproduct, or TNF-α in vitro. Apoptosis was assessed by measuring cytoplasmic histone-associated DNA. The role of FOXO1 was examined by RNA interference (RNAi), and specific inhibitors were used to investigate the role of p38 and Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK MAP) kinases, Akt, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). Caspase-3 activity was measured with a luminescent substrate, and FOXO1 DNA-binding activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Results: TNF-α and CML-collagen but not control collagen stimulated apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, and FOXO1 DNA-binding activity in pericytes. Silencing FOXO1 by small interfering RNA prevented apoptosis of pericytes in response to both TNF-α and CML-collagen. By use of specific inhibitors, we demonstrated that both FOXO1 activation and subsequent apoptosis was mediated, in part, by p38 and JNK MAP kinases. In contrast Akt and NF-κB inhibitors had the opposite effect on pericyte apoptosis. Conclusions: The results demonstrate pathways through which two different mediators, TNF-α and an advanced glycation endproduct, can induce pericyte apoptosis through activation of the transcription factor FOXO1.
  • Publication
    Impaired Wound Healing in Mouse Models of Diabetes Is Mediated by TNF-α Dysregulation and Associated With Enhanced Activation of Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1)
    (2010-02-01) Siqueira, Michelle F; Li, Jingyuan; Chehab, Leena; Desta, Tesfahun; Chino, Takahiro; Krothpali, N.; Behl, Yugal; Alikhani, Mani; Yang, Julia; Braasch, Cameron; Graves, Dana T
    Aims/hypothesis The role of TNF-α in impaired wound healing in diabetes was examined by focusing on fibroblasts. Methods Small excisional wounds were created in the db/db mice model of type 2 diabetes and normoglycaemic littermates, and in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model and control mice. Fibroblast apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL assay, proliferation by detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activity by DNA binding and nuclear translocation. TNF-α was specifically inhibited by pegsunercept. Results Diabetic wounds had increased TNF-α, fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity and activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor FOXO1, and decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive fibroblasts (p < 0.05). TNF-α inhibition improved healing in the diabetic mice and increased fibroblast density. This may be explained by a decrease in fibroblast apoptosis and increased proliferation when TNF-α was blocked (p  < 0.05). Although decreased fibroblast proliferation and enhanced FOXO1 activity were investigated in type 2 diabetes, they may also be implicated in type 1 diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α enhanced mRNA levels of gene sets related to apoptosis and Akt and p53 but not mitochondrial or cell-cycle pathways. FOXO1 small interfering RNA reduced gene sets that regulate apoptosis, Akt, mitochondrial and cell-cycle pathways. TNF-α also increased genes involved in inflammation, cytokine, Toll-like receptor and nuclear factor-kB pathways, which were significantly reduced by FOXO1 knockdown. Conclusions/interpretation These studies indicate that TNF-α dysregulation in diabetic wounds impairs healing, which may involve enhanced fibroblast apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In vitro, TNF-α induced gene sets through FOXO1 that regulate a number of pathways that could influence inflammation and apoptosis.