Graves, Dana T
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PublicationFOXO1 Promotes Wound Healing Through the Up-Regulation of TGF-β1 and Prevention of Oxidative Stress(2013-10-28) Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Xu, Fanxing; Zhang, Chenying; Tian, Chen; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TKeratinocyte mobilization is a critical aspect of wound re-epithelialization, but the mechanisms that control its precise regulation remain poorly understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) has a negative effect on healing because of its capacity to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis. Contrary to expectations, FOXO1 is required for keratinocyte transition to a wound-healing phenotype that involves increased migration and up-regulation of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and its downstream targets, integrin-α3 and -β6 and MMP-3 and -9. Furthermore, we show that FOXO1 functions in keratinocytes to reduce oxidative stress, which is necessary to maintain cell migration and prevent cell death in a TGF-β1–independent manner. Thus, our studies identify a novel function for FOXO1 in coordinating the response of keratinocytes to wounding through up-regulation of TGF-β1 and other factors needed for keratinocyte migration and protection against oxidative stress, which together promote migration and decrease apoptosis. PublicationDiabetes Causes the Accelerated Loss of Cartilage During Fracture Repair Which Is Reversed by Insulin Treatment(2009-02-01) Kayal, Rayyan A; Alblowi, Jazia; McKenzie, Erin; Krothapalli, Nanarao; Silkman, Lee; Gerstenfeld, Louis; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TFracture healing in diabetic individuals and in animal models of diabetes is impaired. To investigate mechanisms by which diabetes may affect fracture healing we focused on the transition from cartilage to bone, a midpoint in the fracture healing process. Femoral fractures were induced in mice rendered diabetic by multiple low dose streptozotocin treatment and compared to matching normoglycemic mice. One group of diabetic animals was treated with slow release insulin to maintain normal serum glucose levels. The results indicate that there was relatively little difference in the initial formation of the fracture callus on day 10. However, on day 16 the diabetic group had significantly smaller callus, greater loss of cartilage and enhanced osteoclastogenesis that was normalized by treatment with insulin when assessed by histomorphometric analysis. Chondrocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in diabetic mice and this increase was blocked by insulin. These changes were accompanied by diabetes-increased mRNA levels of RANKL, TNF-α, and ADAMTS-4 and -5 measured by real-time PCR, which was reversed by insulin treatment. On days 16 and 22 bone formation within the callus of diabetic mice was significantly less than the normoglycemic and brought to normal levels by insulin treatment. These results suggest that a significant effect of diabetes on fracture healing is increased chondrocyte apoptosis and osteoclastogenesis that accelerates the loss of cartilage and reduces the anlage for endochondral bone formation during fracture repair. That insulin reverses these effects demonstrates that they are directly related to the diabetic condition. PublicationRole of Forkhead Transcription Factors in Diabetes-Induced Oxidative Stress(2012-01-01) Ponugoti, Bhaskar; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TDiabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency and/or insulin resistance. Recent evidence suggests that high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent oxidative stress are key contributors in the development of diabetic complications. The FOXO family of forkhead transcription factors including FOXO1, FOXO3, FOXO4, and FOXO6 play important roles in the regulation of many cellular and biological processes and are critical regulators of cellular oxidative stress response pathways. FOXO1 transcription factors can affect a number of different tissues including liver, retina, bone, and cell types ranging from hepatocytes to microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes to osteoblasts. They are induced by oxidative stress and contribute to ROS-induced cell damage and apoptosis. In this paper, we discuss the role of FOXO transcription factors in mediating oxidative stress-induced cellular response. PublicationFOXO1 Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation(2011-05-01) Siqueira, Michelle F; Flowers, Stephen; Bhattacharya, Rupa; Faibish, Dan; Behl, Yugal; Kotton, Darrell N; Gerstenfeld, Lou; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TForkhead box O1 (FOXO1) is upregulated during bone formation and in response to stimulation by bone morphogenetic proteins. Studies presented here examined the functional role of FOXO1 in a well defined culture system in which pre-osteoblastic cells undergo terminal differentiation in vitro. Mineralizing cultures of MC3T3-E1 cells were examined with or without FOXO1 knockdown by RNAi. Normal cells show the upregulation of FOXO1 and RUNX2 DNA binding activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mRNA levels of FOXO1, RUNX2, type 1 collagen, osteocalcin and MMP13 during formation of mineralizing nodules. In FOXO1 depleted cells each of these measurements was significantly reduced compared to values in control cells transfected with scrambled siRNA (P < 0.05). Depletion of FOXO1 also reduced the number of mineralized nodules formed. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed a direct interaction of FOXO1 with the RUNX2 promoter. Overexpression of FOXO1 reduced the MC3T3-E1 cell number and the number of PCNA positive cells with little effect on apoptosis. These findings indicate that FOXO1 plays an important role in promoting osteoblast differentiation and suppressing proliferation in differentiating cells. PublicationFOXO1, TGF-β Regulation and Wound Healing(2014-09-15) Hameedaldeen, Alhassan; Liu, Jian; Batres, Angelika; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TRe-epithelialization is a complex process that involves migration and proliferation of keratinocytes, in addition to the production of cytokines and growth factors that affect other cells. The induction of transcription factors during these processes is crucial for successful wound healing. The transcription factor forkhead boxO-1 (FOXO1) has recently been found to be an important regulator of wound healing. In particular, FOXO1 has significant effects through regulation of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) expression and protecting keratinocytes from oxidative stress. In the absence of FOXO1, there is increased oxidative damage, reduced TGF-β1 expression, reduced migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and increased keratinocytes apoptosis leading to impaired re-epithelialization of wounds. PublicationImpaired Wound Healing in Mouse Models of Diabetes Is Mediated by TNF-α Dysregulation and Associated With Enhanced Activation of Forkhead Box O1 (FOXO1)(2010-02-01) Siqueira, Michelle F; Li, Jingyuan; Chehab, Leena; Desta, Tesfahun; Chino, Takahiro; Krothpali, N.; Behl, Yugal; Alikhani, Mani; Yang, Julia; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TAims/hypothesis The role of TNF-α in impaired wound healing in diabetes was examined by focusing on fibroblasts. Methods Small excisional wounds were created in the db/db mice model of type 2 diabetes and normoglycaemic littermates, and in a streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes mouse model and control mice. Fibroblast apoptosis was measured by the TUNEL assay, proliferation by detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) activity by DNA binding and nuclear translocation. TNF-α was specifically inhibited by pegsunercept. Results Diabetic wounds had increased TNF-α, fibroblast apoptosis, caspase-3/7 activity and activation of the pro-apoptotic transcription factor FOXO1, and decreased proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive fibroblasts (p < 0.05). TNF-α inhibition improved healing in the diabetic mice and increased fibroblast density. This may be explained by a decrease in fibroblast apoptosis and increased proliferation when TNF-α was blocked (p < 0.05). Although decreased fibroblast proliferation and enhanced FOXO1 activity were investigated in type 2 diabetes, they may also be implicated in type 1 diabetes. In vitro, TNF-α enhanced mRNA levels of gene sets related to apoptosis and Akt and p53 but not mitochondrial or cell-cycle pathways. FOXO1 small interfering RNA reduced gene sets that regulate apoptosis, Akt, mitochondrial and cell-cycle pathways. TNF-α also increased genes involved in inflammation, cytokine, Toll-like receptor and nuclear factor-kB pathways, which were significantly reduced by FOXO1 knockdown. Conclusions/interpretation These studies indicate that TNF-α dysregulation in diabetic wounds impairs healing, which may involve enhanced fibroblast apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In vitro, TNF-α induced gene sets through FOXO1 that regulate a number of pathways that could influence inflammation and apoptosis. PublicationFOXO Transcription Factors: Their Clinical Significance and Regulation(2014-04-03) Wang, Yu; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TMembers of the class O of forkhead box transcription factors (FOXO) have important roles in metabolism, cellular proliferation, stress resistance, and apoptosis. The activity of FOXOs is tightly regulated by posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation, acetylation, and ubiquitylation. Activation of cell survival pathways such as phosphoinositide-3-kinase/AKT/IKK or RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylates FOXOs at different sites which regulate FOXOs nuclear localization or degradation. FOXO transcription factors are upregulated in a number of cell types including hepatocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, pericytes, and cardiac myocytes. They are involved in a number of pathologic and physiologic processes that include proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation, cytokine expression, immunity, differentiation, and resistance to oxidative stress. These processes impact a number of clinical conditions such as carcinogenesis, diabetes, diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease, host response, and wound healing. In this paper, we focus on the potential role of FOXOs in different disease models and the regulation of FOXOs by various stimuli. PublicationP. gingivalis Modulates Keratinocytes Through FOXO Transcription Factors(2013-11-12) Li, Shuai; Dong, Guangyu; Moschidis, Anastasios; Ortiz, Javier; Kinane, Denis F; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Graves, Dana T; Kinane, Denis F; Graves, Dana TP. gingivalis is a prominent periodontal pathogen that has potent effects on host cells. In this study we challenged gingival epithelial cells with P. gingivalis with the aim of assessing how mRNA levels of key target genes were modulated by P. gingivalis via the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3. Primary mono- and multi-layer cultures of gingival epithelial cells were challenged and barrier function was examined by fluorescent dextran and apoptosis was measured by cytoplasmic histone associated DNA. Gene expression levels were measured by real-time PCR with and without FOXO1 and FOXO3 siRNA compared to scrambled siRNA. P. gingivalis induced a loss of barrier function and stimulated gingival epithelial cell apoptosis in multilayer cultures that was in part gingipain dependent. P. gingivalis stimulated an increase in FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA, enhanced mRNA levels of genes associated with differentiated keratinocyte function (keratin-1, -10, -14, and involucrin), increased mRNA levels of apoptotic genes (BID and TRADD), reduced mRNA levels of genes that regulate inflammation (TLR-2 and -4) and reduced those associated with barrier function (integrin beta-1, -3 and -6). The ability of P. gingivalis to modulate these genes was predominantly FOXO1 and FOXO3 dependent. The results indicate that P. gingivalis has pronounced effects on gingival keratinocytes and modulates mRNA levels of genes that affect host response, differentiation, apoptosis and barrier function. Moreover, this modulation is dependent upon the transcription factors FOXO1 or FOXO3. In addition, a new function for FOXO1 was identified, that of suppressing TLR-2 and TLR-4 and maintaining integrin beta -1, beta -3 and beta -6 basal mRNA levels in keratinocytes. PublicationAbnormal Cell Repsonses and Role of TNF-α in Impaired Diabetic Wound Healing(2013-01-01) Xu, Fanxing; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana TImpaired diabetic wound healing constitutes a major health problem. The impaired healing is caused by complex factors such as abnormal keratinocyte and fibroblast migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, abnormal macrophage polarization, impaired recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and decreased vascularization. Diabetes-enhanced and prolonged expression of TNF-α also contributes to impaired healing. In this paper, we discuss the abnormal cell responses in diabetic wound healing and the contribution of TNF-α. PublicationA Long-Term siRNA Strategy Regulates Fibronectin Overexpression and Improves Vascular Lesions in Retinas of Diabetic Rats(2011-12-06) Roy, Sumon; Graves, Dana T; Graves, Dana T; Roy, SayonPurpose: A sustained gene modulatory strategy is necessary for regulating abnormal gene expression in diabetic retinopathy, a long-term complication. We investigated the efficacy of a small interference RNA (siRNA) strategy in mediating the long-term downregulatory effect of fibronectin (FN) overexpression in vivo. Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were intravitreally injected with 3 µM of FN-siRNA at six week intervals over a period of 4.5 months. Retinal FN protein expression, vascular basement membrane (BM) thickness, and retinal vascular cell loss were assessed by western blot, electron microscopy, and retinal trypsin digest, respectively. Results: Retinal FN expression and BM thickness were significantly increased in diabetic rat retinas compared to those in non-diabetic control rats (188±14.2% of control versus 100±7.4% of control, p Conclusions: These findings suggest that BM thickening is an important target for preventing vascular cell loss in a diabetic retina, and that the siRNA approach could be useful for long-term gene modulation in diabetic retinopathy.