Aviv, Adam J

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Moving Targets: Geographically Routed Human Movement Networks
    (2010-03-01) Aviv, Adam J; Sherr, Micah; Blaze, Matt; Smith, Jonathan M
    We introduce a new communication paradigm, Human-to-human Mobile Ad hoc Networking (HuManet), that exploits smartphone capabilities and human behavior to create decentralized networks for smartphone-to-smartphone message delivery. HuManets support stealth command-and-control messaging for mobile BotNets, covert channels in the presence of an observer who monitors all cellular communication, and distributed protocols for querying the state or content of targeted mobile devices. In this paper, we introduce techniques for constructing HumaNets and describe protocols for efficiently routing and addressing messages. In contrast to flooding or broadcast schemes that saturate the network and aggressively consume phone resources (e.g., batteries), our protocols exploit human mobility patterns to significantly increase communication efficiency while limiting the exposure of HuManets to mobile service providers. Our techniques leverage properties of smartphones – in particular, their highly synchronized clocks and ability to discern location information – to construct location profiles for each device. HuManets’ fully-distributed and heuristic-based routing protocols route messages towards phones with location profiles that are similar to those of the intended receiver, enabling efficient message delivery with limited effects to end-to-end latency.
  • Publication
    QuanTM: A Quantitative Trust Management System
    (2009-03-01) West, Andrew G; Aviv, Adam J; Chang, Jian; Prabhu, Vinayak S; Blaze, Matthew A; Kannan, Sampath; Lee, Insup; Smith, Jonathan M; Sokolsky, Oleg
    Quantitative Trust Management (QTM) provides a dynamic interpretation of authorization policies for access control decisions based on upon evolving reputations of the entities involved. QuanTM, a QTM system, selectively combines elements from trust management and reputation management to create a novel method for policy evaluation. Trust management, while effective in managing access with delegated credentials (as in PolicyMaker and KeyNote), needs greater flexibility in handling situations of partial trust. Reputation management provides a means to quantify trust, but lacks delegation and policy enforcement. This paper reports on QuanTM’s design decisions and novel policy evaluation procedure. A representation of quantified trust relationships, the trust dependency graph, and a sample QuanTM application specific to the KeyNote trust management language, are also proposed.
  • Publication
    Experiences in Teaching an Educational User-Level Operating Systems Implementation Project
    (2012-01-01) Aviv, Adam J; Mannino, Vin; Owlarn, Thanat; Shannin, Seth; Xu, Kevin; Loo, Boon Thau
    The importance of a comprehensive implementation component for undergraduate Operating Systems (OS) courses cannot be understated. Students not only develop deep insight and understanding of OS fundamentals, but they also learn key software engineering skills that only a large development project, such as implementing an OS, can teach. There are clear benefits to traditional OS projects where students program or alter real (Linux) kernel source or extend educational OS implementations; however, in our experience, bootstrapping such a project is a huge undertaking that may not be accessible in many classrooms. In this paper, we describe a different approach to the OS implementation assignment: A user-level Operating System simulation based on UNIX preemptive signaling and threading constructs called ucontext. We believe that this variation of the implementation assignment provides many of the same educational benefits as traditional low-level projects without many of the expensive start-up costs. This project has been taught for a number of years at the University of Pennsylvania and was recently overhauled for the Fall 2011 semester. This paper describes the current version of the project and our experiences teaching it to a class of 54 students.
  • Publication
    Spam Mitigation Using Spatio-Temporal Reputations From Blacklist History
    (2010-12-01) West, Andrew G.; Aviv, Adam J.; Chang, Jian; Lee, Insup
    IP blacklists are a spam filtering tool employed by a large number of email providers. Centrally maintained and well regarded, blacklists can filter 80+% of spam without having to perform computationally expensive content-based filtering. However, spammers can vary which hosts send spam (often in intelligent ways), and as a result, some percentage of spamming IPs are not actively listed on any blacklist. Blacklists also provide a previously untapped resource of rich historical information. Leveraging this history in combination with spatial reasoning, this paper presents a novel reputation model (PreSTA), designed to aid in spam classification. In simulation on arriving email at a large university mail system, PreSTA is capable of classifying up to 50% of spam not identified by blacklists alone, and 93% of spam on average (when used in combination with blacklists). Further, the system is consistent in maintaining this blockage-rate even during periods of decreased blacklist performance. PreSTA is scalable and can classify over 500,000 emails an hour. Such a system can be implemented as a complementary blacklist service and used as a first-level filter or prioritization mechanism on an email server.