Gaiha, Raghav

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Now showing 1 - 10 of 14
  • Publication
    Changes in Subjective versus Objective Well-Being in India
    (2021-05-12) Kulkarni, Vani S.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Imai, Katsushi S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    Although there is abundant literature on subjective well-being (SWB), there is virtually none for India. Growing recognition of the validity and accuracy of measures of SWB of well-being underlies the rapid growth of literature on SWB in recent decades but it has mainly focused on developed countries. Ours is, to our knowledge, the first study of SWB at the all-India level, and one of the few on developing countries, with a rigorous validation of the results. Applying robust OLS and ordered probit models to the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) panel data in 2005 and 2012, we assess SWB changes in 2005-2012, based on a self-reported measure of changes in economic well-being, as a function of household and state covariates in 2005. This is in sharp contrast with earlier studies’ focus on the levels of SWB. Another point of departure of our study and an innovative extension is to compare the covariates of SWB changes with those of objective well-being (OWB) changes, proxied by the relative growth in real per capita household consumption between 2005 and 2012. Households with an older and educated head in a larger household, located in urban areas or affluent states in 2005 tend to experience further improvement in both SWB and OWB between 2005 and 2012. On the contrary, households with a female household head, with more male members in the labour market, with regular access to mass media, without members suffering from non-communicable diseases or disability are more likely to be better off subjectively without experiencing corresponding improvement in OWB. The policy challenges raise serious concerns.
  • Publication
    Aging, Depression, Non-Communicable Diseases and Disabilities in South Africa
    (2018-07-16) Pandey, Manoj K.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    This is the first study that offers a comprehensive analysis of depression among the old (60+ years) in South Africa. This study uses four waves of a panel survey of the South Africa National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) during 2008-2014. A state-of-art econometric methodology has been used to unravel the factors underlying depression among the old over the period 2008-2014. Depending on whether the dependent variable is binary (self-reported depression for ≥ 3 days in a week) or continuous (as in measures of overall depression and severe depression), we use random effects probit with Mundlak adjustment or simply random effects with Mundlak adjustment. Among the old, those more likely to be depressed are: those in their sixties, Africans and Coloureds, women, those suffering from multimorbidity, those with multiple limitations in ADLs, those in lower asset quartiles and individuals who suffered family bereavements. Factors that attenuate depression include marriage, pension, affluence, trust in a community and familiar neighbourhoods. An important feature of our study is the robustness of the key results. To reduce their depression, more public and private health care investment in the health and well-being of aged in South Africa is recommended.
  • Publication
    Poverty Transitions, Health, and Socio-Economic Disparities in India
    (2020-07-07) Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    SDGs offer an inclusive and just vision for 2030, in which the interrelationships between (near) elimination of poverty, health reforms and elimination of socio-economic disparities play an important role. The present study focuses on the associations between poverty transitions over a period, and health indicators such as NCDs, disabilities, socio-economic disparities, state affluence and inequality in income distribution. These health indicators reflect their growing importance in recent years. We have used a Multinomial Probit specification which is an improvement on the methodologies used in earlier research. The analysis is based on panel data from the India Human Development Survey 2015. What our analysis emphasises is that changes in the prevalence of poverty/headcount ratio over time do not throw light on how poverty has evolved: whether there were escapes from poverty, whether there were descents into poverty, whether segments persisted in poverty, and whether (the relatively) affluent remained largely unaffected. A significant contribution of this study is to explore the relationships between such poverty transitions and NCDs and disabilities, socio-economic disparities and other covariates. The analysis confirms these linkages. Drawing upon this analysis and other relevant research, policy challenges in achieving the SDG vision of an inclusive and fair economy are delineated.
  • Publication
    Change in Subjective Well-Being, Affluence and Trust in Judiciary in India
    (2022-05-12) Kulkarni, Vani S.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Imai, Katsushi S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    The present study tests the hypothesis that trust in the lower judiciary in India - comprising High Courts at the state level and District Courts at the lower level - is associated with improvement in subjective economic well-being. The analysis is based on the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) 1 and 2 in 2005 and 2012, a large nationally representative household panel dataset. Using 2SLS and Lewbel IV models to take into account the endogeneity of trust in the lower judiciary, our analysis confirms that trust in the lower judiciary has a positive association with the change in SWB. The policy significance of this result is substantial as the pace of judicial reform tends to be slow in developing countries, such as India. Attention is drawn to specific reforms to reduce the pendency of cases. These include repeal of long outdated and dysfunctional laws, greater funding for expansion of the judiciary and, more importantly, for increasing the productivity of judges through the creation of a specialised administrative agency to support the judiciary and more effective use of IT in case management. This also has the potential for reducing rampant corruption, frequency of adjournments in court hearings as well as in ensuring autonomy of the judiciary.
  • Publication
    Persistence of Non-Communicable Diseases, Affluence and Inequality in India
    (2019-12-05) Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    This study builds on the extant literature by highlighting the persistence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), their cross-associations, and how these diseases are linked to different forms of inequality-socio-economic, gaps in affluence measured by asset quartile, and in the overall economic environment, based on a nation-wide panel survey, India Human Development Survey 2015. A multinomial probit specification is used to analyse NCD outcomes. Those at the bottom of the caste hierarchy and least wealthy exhibit lowest vulnerability to NCDs despite their deprivation and limited access to healthcare facilities while those at the higher end of the caste hierarchy and the wealthiest are most vulnerable. However, overall economic inequality, using Piketty’s (2013) measure, is insidious as it corrodes social cohesion and support, and the capability to live a healthy and productive life. New light is thrown on whether social networks are associated with better NCD outcomes. So policy interventions have to be not just medical but much broader in scope.
  • Publication
    Non-communicable Diseases and Depression: Evidence from South Africa
    (2019-07-17) Pandey, Manoj K.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    Although there are numerous studies of depression and its linkages with non-communicable diseases (NCDs), most rely on a single cross-section or a single wave of the National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) for South Africa, which does not allow for incorporation of individual unobservable effects. Such effects are potentially significant as it is frequently observed that there is considerable variation in depressive symptoms even when an old person suffers from common NCDs. We use correlated random effects probit model on the first 5 waves of SA-NIDS panel data collected every two years between 2008-2016/17 to examine the reverse association from Depression to selected NCDs, controlling for socio-economic and demographic characteristics. The analysis yields useful insights into the complex relationships between NCDs and depression. Policy options that focus on biological and behavioural links in the co-occurrence of NCDs and depression are examined. Of particular importance is integration of depression and NCD care in primary health care with a view to increasing prevention, screening, self-management, treatment and rehabilitation in order to achieve equitable, efficient and quality health services in South Africa.
  • Publication
    Employment, Aging and Disease in India
    (2019-09-10) Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    The literature on the associations between NCDs and disabilities, and loss of employment in India is patchy and sparse. Although insightful, these studies are long on economic losses through high out of pocket expenditure (OOP) and cutbacks in non-medical expenditure, but they are short on employment losses. Besides, most are based on not-so-recent data. The present study seeks to fill these gaps using a nation-wide panel survey, the India Human Development Survey 2015, that covers the period between 2005-2012. A state-of-art econometric analysis confirms that substantial employment losses are associated with non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure (NCDs) and disabilities (or limitations in carrying out ADL) with appropriate controls. The economic burden of NCDs is already enormous and is set to grow rapidly. Scaling-up the prevention and control of NCDs is very low cost compared to this burden, and would provide substantial returns to health and productivity. Prevention of NCDs should be thus a major priority for India. Health and labour market policies have considerable potential for mitigating the detrimental labour market impacts of ill-health, and thus enable better lives and a more inclusive economy.
  • Publication
    Change in Subjective Well-Being, Affluence and Trust in State Governments in India
    (2022-06-10) Kulkarni, Vani S.; Kulkarni, Veena S.; Imai, Katsushi; Gaiha, Raghav
    The present study explores the relationship between trust in state governments and changes in subjective well-being in India, drawing upon the nationally-representative India Human Development Survey (IHDS) panel data for 2005 and 2012. Our econometric results confirm that people’s trust in state governments is positively associated with changes in their subjective well-being in economic aspects. To take into account the endogeneity of people’s trust in the state government, we have used the 2SLS model where the trust is instrumented by (i) whether the winning legislators belonged to the ruling party, and (ii) whether the margin of victory over the closest rival exceeded 12 %. The robustness of the results has been confirmed by the Lewbel IV model in which the internal instruments are used in addition to the two external instruments. The policy focus in rebuilding trust in state governments destroyed by the relentless pursuit of Hindutva and over-centralisation are discussed.
  • Publication
    Rural Poverty and Disability in LMICs
    (2020-05-27) Gaiha, Raghav; Mathur, Shantanu; Kulkarni, Vani S.
    Disability is neither a purely medical nor a purely social phenomenon. Rather, it is an outcome of their interplay. The main contributions of our study are two-fold: (i) a synthesis of the extant literature on the links between poverty and disability in LMICs. However, the studies focused on these links in rural areas are sparse. (ii) As rural economies-specifically, agriculture- continue to play an important role in economic growth, it is necessary to deepen our understanding of factors associated with rural disabilities, their association with rural employment and, finally, whether disabilities are associated with rural poverty. We use panel data for India and Ethiopia to illustrate these linkages, using rigorous econometric methodology. In particular, an important contribution is to corroborate the bidirectional association between disability and poverty, noted in many but validated in a few. The CRPD has ensured a concomitant shift in global initiatives, most notably the 2015 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) which explicitly recognise disability as a major impediment to elimination of poverty and hunger. In the current development discourse, disability has thus acquired high priority. Although there is a plethora of legislation banning discrimination against the disabled in LMICs-including India and Ethiopia and other LMICs-discrimination against disabled women and elderly is rampant. While it is imperative to fix the policy failures, a remedial strategy has to mainstream the disabled in a sustainable rural development framework, with a key role of the community and mass media in dismantling the barriers to the participation of the disabled in the political, economic and social spheres. Although the challenges are formidable, our study offers grounds for optimism.
  • Publication
    Aging, Disability and Disease in India
    (2018-10-04) Kulkarni, Veena S.; Kulkarni, Vani S.; Gaiha, Raghav
    Obtaining detailed evidence on disabilities and their covariates is important as India’s elderly population (60 years or more) is growing three times faster than the population as a whole. This study is the first of its kind to provide an analysis of disability and its covariates among the elderly in 2012, based on the India Human Development Survey 2015, a nationally representative panel survey. Our analysis throws light on factors associated with (reported) disabilities in 2012.Given better reporting of disabilities in 2012, we examine the role of their covariates in 2005. Variations in both disabilities by count and type are analysed. Based on probit and ordered probit specifications, we find that vulnerability of the elderly people to (reported) disabilities in 2012 is associated with important covariates in 2005: a largely rural population, low assets, non-communicable diseases (NCDs), disabilities, lack of school education, widowhood, aging, and lack of participation in social networks. Similar associations are found for variations in disabilities by type in 2012, using the covariates in 2005..Thus disabilities are not just a medical or social problem but an outcome of their interplay. While the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act 2016 is laudable in its intent and procedural detail, it is largely silent on disabilities among the elderly. A major overhaul of the health system is proposed to address better the disabilities of India’s aging population.