Stercel, Ferenc

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Now showing 1 - 4 of 4
  • Publication
    Processing of single wall carbon nanotubes and implications for filling experiments
    (2001-11-26) Russo, Richard M; Chikkannanavar, Satishkumar B; Stercel, Ferenc; Smith, Brian W; Luzzi, David E
    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have been processed in different schemes to get clean material for use in various filling experiments. The SWNTs synthesized by different methods require different processing schemes, and this is presumably due to heterogeneous nature of the various contaminants present along with the carbon nanotubes. For the pulsed laser synthesized SWNTs, a combination of nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide and hydrochloric acid treatment gives best results and the purified SWNTs give best ever filling fraction for fullerene, C60 of ~90%. The processing improves the surface cleanliness of SWNTs, in turn giving greater access for the target molecules, and hence the higher filling fraction. For the carbon arc produced SWNTs, air oxidation followed by treatment with nitric acid has been found to work best and the processed SWNTs have been used for filling experiments with metal chlorides. Both these processing schemes still leave a small fraction of catalyst impurities in the final material, thus the material quality of filled material and hence its properties depend on the processed material used for the filling experiments.
  • Publication
    Structure and properties of C60@SWNT
    (2001-11-26) Russo, Richard M; Chikkannanavar, Satishkumar B; Stercel, Ferenc; Smith, Brian W; Luzzi, David E
    Our recent achievement of high-yield C60@SWNT synthesis facilitates characterization by various techniques, including selected area electron diffraction (SAD) and Raman spectroscopy. The obtained SAD patterns show that interior C60 molecules sit on a simple 1-D lattice having a parameter of 1.00 nm. Simulated SAD patterns and real-space measurements both support this determination and do not indicate a lattice with a more complex basis, e.g. a dimer basis. Empty and bulk-filled SWNTs (22%, 56%, and 90% yields), each subjected to identical processing steps, were examined by room temperature Raman spectroscopy. Systematic differences are seen between the spectra of filled and unfilled SWNTs, particularly with respect to the G- and RBM-bands of the nanotubes. We present a possible explanation for this behavior.
  • Publication
    Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes Filled with Metallocenes: a First Example of Non-Fullerene Peapods
    (2001-11-26) Stercel, Ferenc; Nemes, Norbert M; Fischer, John E; Luzzi, David E
    We report the synthesis and analysis of metallocenes (ferrocene, chromocene, ruthenocene, vanadocene, tungstenocene-dihydride) encapsulated in single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). In the case of ferrocene, efficient filling of the SWNTs was accomplished from both the liquid and the vapor phase. The other two metallocenes were filled from the vapor phase. High resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals single molecular chains of metallocenes inside SWNTs. Molecules move under the electron beam in the SWNTs indicating the absence of strong chemical bonds between each other and the SWNT wall. Their movement freezes after short illumination as a result of irradiation damage. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry confirms the presence of iron, chromium, ruthenium, vanadium and tungsten.
  • Publication
    Reproducible synthesis of C60@SWNT in 90% yields
    (2001-11-26) Russo, Richard M; Chikkannanavar, Satishkumar B; Luzzi, David E; Smith, Brian W; Stercel, Ferenc
    In previous works, we have shown our discovery of C60@SWNT and first described the general mechanism of filling, which involves the vapor phase transport of C60 molecules to openings in the SWNTs' walls. Here, we discuss the high-yield synthesis of C60@SWNT by refinements to our method. Yields are measured by a calibrated weight uptake technique, a methodology that is not subject to many of the potential pitfalls inherent to other techniques that have been applied. At certain processing conditions, yields exceeding 90% were obtained and corroborated by transmission electron microscopy. From our data, we determine the parameters most important for creating endohedral SWNT supramolecular assemblies by the vapor phase method. Our results pave the way for successful single-tube measurements and for high-yield filling with non-fullerenes.