Scatena, Frederick

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Now showing 1 - 8 of 8
  • Publication
    Hurricane Hugo: Damage to a Tropical Rain Forest in Puerto Rico
    (1992-02-01) Basnet, Khadga; Likens, Gene E; Scatena, Frederick N; Lugo, Ariel E
    Hurricane Hugo of September 1989 caused severe damage to the rain forest in the north-east corner of Puerto Rico. We assessed the severity of damage distributed in space, species, and size-classes of trees in the Bisley Watersheds of the Luquillo Experimental Forest. We analyzed pre- and post-hurricane data for vegetation from transects established in 1987 and 1988. The severity of damage was significantly greater in valleys than on ridges and slopes. All the species except Dacryodes excelsa, Sloanea berteriana, and Guarea guidonia showed 100% severe damage. Large trees (> 70 cm DBH) were highly susceptible to hurricane damage, but there was no clear pattern in the small size-classes. D. excelsa (tabonuco) was the most resistant to damage by the hurricane. Tabonuco which has extensive root-grafts and root anchorage to bedrock and subsurficial rocks, apparently can survive frequent hurricanes and continue as a dominant species in this montane tropical rain forest. The high frequency of hurricanes, which can override other ecological and topographic factors, may largely determine the overall spatial pattern of species in this rain forest.
  • Publication
    Effects of Nutrient Availability and Other Elevational Changes on Bromeliad Populations and Their Invertebrate Communities in a Humid Tropical Forest in Puerto Rico
    (2000-03-01) Richardson, Barbara A; Richardson, M. J; Scatena, Frederick; McDowell, William H
    Nutrient inputs into tank bromeliads were studied in relation to growth and productivity, and the abundance, diversity and biomass of their animal inhabitants, in three forest types along an elevational gradient. Concentrations of phosphorus, potassium and calcium in canopy-derived debris, and nitrogen and phosphorus in phytotelm water, declined with increasing elevation. Dwarf forest bromeliads contained the smallest amounts of debris/plant and lowest concentrations of nutrients in plant tissue. Their leaf turnover rate and productivity were highest and, because of high plant density, they comprised 12.8and contained 3.3 t ha -1 of water. Annual nutrient budgets indicated that these microcosms were nutrient-abundant and accumulated < 5dwarf forest, where accumulation was c. 25biomass/plant peaked in the intermediate elevation forest, and were positively correlated with the debris content/bromeliad across all forest types. Animal species richness showed a significant mid-elevational peak, whereas abundance was independent of species richness and debris quantities, and declined with elevation as forest net primary productivity declined. The unimodal pattern of species richness was not correlated with nutrient concentrations, and relationships among faunal abundance, species richness, nutrient inputs and environment are too complex to warrant simple generalizations about nutrient resources and diversity, even in apparently simple microhabitats.
  • Publication
    Effects of Hurricane Disturbance on Stream Water Concentrations and Fluxes in Eight Tropical Forest Watersheds of the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico
    (2000-03-01) Schaefer, Douglas A; McDowell, William H; Scatena, Frederick; Asbury, Clyde E
    Stream water chemistry responds substantially to watershed disturbances, but hurricane effects have not been extensively investigated in tropical regions. This study presents a long-term (2.5-11 y) weekly record of stream water chemistry on eight forested watersheds (catchment basins) in the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. This includes a period before and at least 2 y after the disturbance caused by the 1989 Hurricane Hugo. Nitrate, potassium and ammonium concentrations increased after the hurricane and remained elevated for up to 2 y. Sulphate, chloride, sodium, magnesium and calcium showed smaller relative significant changes. Average stream water exports of potassium, nitrate and ammonium increased by 13.1, 3.6 and 0.54 kg ha -1 y -1 in the first post-hurricane year across all watersheds. These represent increases of 119, 182 and 102 of record. The increased stream outputs of potassium and nitrogen in the first 2 y post-hurricane are equivalent to 3of the hurricane-derived plant litter. Effects of hurricanes on tropical stream water potassium and nitrogen can be greater than those caused by canopy gaps or limited forest cutting, but less than those following large-scale deforestation or fire.
  • Publication
    Ecological rhythms and the management of humid tropical forests. Examples from the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico
    (2001-12-01) Scatena, Frederick N
    A common premise in modern forest management is that land management should operate over large enough spatial and temporal scales that common natural disturbances are present and implicitly considered. Less emphasis has been focused on managing humid tropical forest ecosystems with the periodic ecological processes that occur between disturbances. The central premise of this paper is that timing management activities to periodic ecological processes that occur between disturbances is an additional prerequisite for the effective management of humid tropical forests. Ecological rhythms are defined here as biological or biogeochemical processes that have definable periodicities and include phenological, circadian, biogeochemical, and behavioral processes. The paper documents the use of ecological rhythms in the management of endangered species and water resources in the Caribbean National Forest of Northeastern Puerto Rico. While this type of dynamic management has proven benefits, managers and regulatory agencies have been hesitant to utilize complex, ecologically based dynamic management schedules because they can be difficult to monitor and regulate. Fortunately, recent technological advantages greatly increase the ability to conduct complex real-time, spatially explicit management. Identifying important ecological rhythms and developing administrative structures that can integrate them into management will be a major challenge in both tropical and temperate environments in the coming decades.
  • Publication
    Metabolism of a tropical rainforest stream
    (2005-12-01) Ortiz-Zayas, Jorge R; Lewis, William M; Saunders, James F; McCutchan, James H; Scatena, Frederick N
    Gradients in photosynthesis (P) and respiration (R) were measured on an unperturbed portion of the Rio Mameyes, a tropical stream in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, northeastern Puerto Rico. Rates of P, which were similar to those of streams in temperate-deciduous forests, were low in the heavily canopied headwaters (<70 g O2 m−2 y−1) and were higher (453–634 g O2 m−2 y−1) in middle and lower reaches. Periphyton biomass did not show the expected increase as the canopy opened downstream, probably because of increasing herbivory in downstream reaches. Rates of R, which were much higher than in most temperate streams, also were lower in the headwaters (767 g O2 m−2 y−1) than in the middle and lower reaches (1550–1660 g O2 m−2 y−1). High rates of R and suppressed periphyton abundance caused annual P/R to be <<1 from headwaters to lower reaches. Results for the Rio Mameyes suggest that intense herbivory, which is favored by the presence of large herbivores and consistently high temperatures, may be more typical of tropical than temperate streams. Results also show that the tropical rainforest provides the stream with sufficient amounts of labile organic C to support high rates of respiration over long distances across the basin.
  • Publication
    Non-Indigenous Bamboo along Headwater Streams of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: Leaf Fall, Aquatic Leaf Decay and Patterns of Invasion
    (2000-07-01) O'Connor, Paul J; Covich, Alan P; Scatena, Frederick; Loope, Lloyd L
    The introduction of bamboo to montane rain forests of the Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico in the 1930s and 1940s has led to present-day bamboo monocultures in numerous riparian areas. When a non-native species invades a riparian ecosystem, in-stream detritivores can be affected. Bamboo dynamics expected to influence stream communities in the Luquillo Experimental Forest (LEF) were examined. Based on current distributions, bamboo has spread downstream at a rate of 8 m y -1 . Mean growth rate of bamboo culms was 15.3 cm d -1 . Leaf fall from bamboo stands exceeded that of native mixed-species forest by c. 30(k = -0.021), and leaves from another abundant riparian exotic, Syzygium jambos (Myrtaceae) (k = -0.018), decayed at relatively slow rates when submerged in streams in fine-mesh bags which excluded macro-invertebrate leaf processors. In a second study, with leaf processors present, bamboo decay rates remained unchanged (k = -0.021), while decay rates of S. jambos increased (k = -0.037). Elemental losses from bamboo leaves in streams were rapid, further suggesting a change in riparian zone/stream dynamics following bamboo invasion. As non-indigenous bamboos spread along Puerto Rico streams, they are likely to alter aquatic communities dependent on leaf input.
  • Publication
    Helping HELP with limited resources: The Luquillo experience
    (2008-08-01) Scatena, Frederick N; Ortiz-Zayas, J R; Blanco-Libreros, J F
    By definition the HELP approach involves the active participation of individuals from a wide range of disciplines and backgrounds, including representatives of industry, academics, natural resource managers, and local officials and community leaders. While there is considerable enthusiasm and support for the integrated HELP approach, a central problem for all HELP basins is how to effectively engage individuals and groups with few, if any financial resources. In the Luquillo HELP project we have managed this issue by focusing our efforts on holding small, public meetings and workshops with technocrats and managers who are engaged in local water resource management. To date several forums have been organised, including: technical meetings with the directors of natural resource agencies; presentations and panel discussions at the meetings of local professional societies, including the societies of Civil Engineers and Architects, the Commonwealth Association of Tourism, the Association of Builders and Developers, and the Puerto Rican Association of Lawyers. During these forums HELP specialists gave presentations and led discussions on how integrated watershed management can help resolve local problems. Because the audience are directly involved with these issues, they are quite responsive to these discussions and have often provided unique solutions to common problems. Technical workshops are co-sponsored by local municipalities – these day-long workshops are hosted by a municipality and include managers from other municipalities, the local water authority, and local community leaders. Additional activities include: technical advice on water infrastructure projects is given; there are educational exchanges between local and international students, scientists, natural resource managers, and community leaders; and synthesis publications relevant to integrated water resource management are produced. Other activities have included compiling oral environmental histories and organising watershed restoration activities. This paper describes these activities and discusses the benefits and costs of each approach.
  • Publication
    Eutrophic overgrowth in the self-organization of tropical wetlands illustrated with a study of swine wastes in rainforest plots
    (2000-11-01) Kent, Robert; Odum, H. T; Scatena, Frederick N
    The relationship of plant species diversity to cultural eutrophy in tropical wetlands was studied in Puerto Rico with experimental plots, a survey of 25 eutrophic sites developing from the wastes of society, and a simulation mini-model. The model is a quantitative hypothesis which contains the mechanisms to maximize empower (gross production) by reinforcing low diversity, net production overgrowth when resources are in excess, but switches to high diversity efficiency and recycle to maximize gross production when excess resources are absent. To study self-organization with eutrophy, six wetland plots (3×2 m) were seeded with many plant species and treated for five months with pig wastewaters and control plots with groundwater. Vegetation was seeded: (1) with seed bank; (2) with ten species of local rainforest and wetland trees (60 individuals in each plot); and (3) with weedy species invading from fertile surroundings. The fertilized waste plots filled in with vegetation in less than half the time (9 weeks) required for the clear water control plots (21 weeks). Vegetative diversity in both waste and control plots was maximum (2.73–3.34 bits per individual) shortly before 100% cover was reached, and then declined with the competitive overgrowth of a few species (mixed grasses and Commelina diffusa). Of the planted seedlings, there was little growth, and individuals of only four species survived. Survival of Andira inermis and Cyrilla racemiflora was 42 and 53%, respectively. Dominants of oligotrophic wetlands (Pterocarpus officinalis and Prestoea montana) were displaced. A survey of 25 other wetland sites, receiving high nutrient waters from developments, found low diversity overgrowth, but different species prevailing. Eighty-five species were involved in wetland self-organizational processes and ecological engineering management. Eutrophic wetlands, such as those released from sugar cane closure in Puerto Rico and elsewhere, may be in a state of marshy, arrested succession because there may not be a forest species already adapted for rapid reforestation of the excess nutrient habitat. The study provides evidence of the overgrowth principle as the natural means for ecological engineering of eutrophic interfaces between the current civilization and environment.