## Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.

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Publication The Dynamics of Two Spherical Particles in a Confined Rotating Flow: Pedalling Motion(2008-03-25) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Hu, Howard H.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.We have numerically investigated the interaction dynamics between two rigid spherical particles moving in a fluid-filled cylinder that is rotating at a constant speed. The cylinder rotation is about a horizontal axis. The particle densities are less than that of the fluid. The numerical procedure employed to solve the mathematical formulation is based on a three-dimensional arbitrary Larangian–Eulerian (ALE), moving mesh finite-element technique, described in a frame of reference rotating with the cylinder. Results are obtained in the ranges of particle Reynolds number, 1Publication Breakdown of a Wire-to-Plane Discharge: Transient Effects(1991-08-12) Jog, Milind A.; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.A wire-to-plane discharge during the early phases of breakdown has been studied. The discharge has been modeled in a prolate spheroidal coordinate system with the wire shape taken as a hyperboloid of revolution. Four simultaneous coupled, time-dependent, nonlinear partial differential equations describe the electrical discharge. These are the conservation equations for ion and electron densities, the energy equation for electron temperature, and Poisson’s equation for the self-consistent electric field. By solving this formulation subject to appropriate initial and boundary conditions, charged particle densities and temperature variations have been obtained as the ionization progresses in the discharge. The results show that both the electron temperature and the charged particle densities increase with the progress of ionization. The effect of different wire polarities is also examined. With a positive wire polarity, the increases in electron temperature and charged particle densities are confined to regions of the discharge in the vicinity of the wire tip. With a negative wire polarity, the breakdown occurs in the entire gap at a faster rate than with a positive wire polarity. The wire polarity affects the magnitude of energy transfer between the particles.Publication Effect of Negative Ions on Electrical Breakdown in a Nonuniform Air Gap Between a Wire and a Plane(1994-01-24) Ramakrishna, K.; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.Electrical breakdown of an axisymmetric, atmospheric pressure air gap between a wire and a plane has been investigated for a gap length of 0.5 mm. 0- and 02- have been identified as the negative ions affecting the discharge development in air, besides electrons and positive ions, and have been included in the electrical breakdown model. Five coupled two-dimensional transient partial differential equations describing the discharge evolution in the air gap have been solved using a finite difference algorithm developed earlier. Temporal development of the charged particle number densities, electrostatic potential, electric field, and current at both the electrodes is presented when the wire is negatively biased at 2500 V. The impact of negative ions on gap breakdown has been assessed by comparing the results of analyses with and without negative ions. It is concluded that the negative ions have negligible effect during the early stages of the discharge development. However, as the discharge evolves, the negative ions cause a net loss of electrons from the discharge. The effect is most pronounced away from the discharge axis, where peaks in the electron density occur as breakdown proceeds. Radial spread of discharge and current growth rate are relatively unaffected by the presence of negative ions, but the magnitude of total current at the electrodes has been found to decrease by a decade when the negative ions are present.Publication Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Associated with Condensation on a Moving Drop: Solutions for Intermediate Reynolds Numbers(1984-12-01) Sundararajan, T.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.The hydrodynamics and heat/mass transport associated with condensation on a moving drop have been investigated for the intermediate Reynolds-number range of drop motion (Re = O(100)). The drop environment is a mixture of saturated vapour and a non-condensable. The formulation entails a simultaneous solution of the quasi-steady elliptic partial differential equations that describe the flow field and transport in the gaseous phase, and the motion inside the liquid drop. The heat transport inside the drop is treated as a transient process. Results are reported for the interfacial velocities, drag, external and internal flow structure, heat flux, drop growth rate and temperature-time history inside the drop. The results obtained here have been compared with experimental data where available, and these show excellent agreement. The results reveal several novel features. The surface-shear stress increases with condensation. The pressure level in the rear of the drop is higher. As a consequence, the friction drag is higher and the pressure drag is lower. The total drag coefficient increases with condensation rate for small values of drop size or temperature differential, and it decreases for large values of these parameters. The volume of the separated-flow region in the rear of the drop decreases with condensation. At very high rates of condensation, the recirculatory wake is completely suppressed. Condensation also delays the appearance of the weak secondary internal vortex motion in the drop. The heat and mass fluxes are significantly affected by the presence of the non-condensable in the gaseous phase and by the circulation inside the drop.Publication Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: Non-Newtonian effects(2008-09-01) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David MWe have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model - a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=ΡlUmaxd/µapp, in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, Ρl is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and µapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), λ, in the range 0.9 ≤ λ≤1.05. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects are taken into account. Both horizontal and vertical vessel geometries have been investigated. Many significant insights are revealed by our study: (i) bubble motion causes large temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the "endothelial cell" (EC) surface lining the blood vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it, and passes it by; (ii) rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress (+ → - → +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble; (iv) computed magnitudes of shear stress gradients coupled with their sign reversals may correspond to levels that cause injury to the cell by membrane disruption through impulsive compression and stretching; and (v) for the vessel sizes and flow rates investigated, gravitational effects are negligible.Publication Thermal and electrical characteristics of a two‐dimensional tanh‐conductivity arc(1978) Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Das, G. C.; Cohen, Ira M.The two-dimensional variable-property arc has been studied through the use of the tanh-conductivity model. Results that describe the thermal and electric arc characteristics for various values of the electrode temperatures and aspect ratios are given. The numerical evaluation is carried out by the use of a Galerkin technique. The results exhibit several novel and interesting features depending on the arc parameters. For large aspect ratios (ratio of the interelectrode distance to that between the bounding walls) and small electrode temperatures, the current---electric-field characteristics tend toward those of a slender arc. However, at a given aspect ratio with large enough electrode temperatures, the distinct minimum noted in the slender-arc characteristics does not occur. Also, for a given aspect ratio and large enough differences in electrode potential, the electric-field-current characteristic is nearly linear and is independent of the electrode temperature. The transverse electrostatic potential is found to have no significant variation in cross-sectional planes. The qualitative nature of the thermal characteristics are similar to those of a constant-property arc although significant differences in quantitative results exist. Wall and electrode heat transfer rates are provided.Publication Two-Dimenslonal Analysis of Electrical Breakdown in a Nonuniform Gap Between a Wire and a Plane(1989) Ramakrishna, K.; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.Electrical breakdown of a gap between a wire (modeled as a hyperboloid) and a plane has been investigated numerically by solving the two-dimensional form of the diffusion flux equations for the charged particle number densities and Poisson's equation for the self-consistent electric field. Electron impact ionization, thermal ionization, and three-body recombination have been considered as the charged particle production and loss mechanisms. The electrode surfaces are considered to be absorbing and the initial density of the particles is small, but nonzero, A gap length of 0.5 mm is investigated and the gas medium is air or argon at atmospheric pressure. The temporal development of the profiles of ion and electron number densities, potential and electric field, and current growth on both the electrodes are presented when the applied voltage is 1500 and 2500 V for both positive and negative wires. When the wire is negatively biased, the peaks in the radial distribution of both of the charged particle densities near the wire occur off the axis except during the very early part of the breakdown. With positive polarity, the electron density maximum always occurs on the discharge axis, while for ions it moves away from the axis, later in the transient, due to the reverse particle drift in the electric field from the negative polarity case, The discharge spreads farther out into the ambient (almost two times the gap length) when the wire is negatively biased than with positive polarity. The effect of charge separation on the externally applied electric field is significant at voltages 2500 V and higher. Ionization is greater in argon than in air for a fixed potential difference between the electrodes.Publication Numerical study of wall effects on buoyant gas-bubble rise in a liquid-filled finite cylinder(2007-09-01) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M; Quan, ShaopingThe wall effects on the axisymmetric rise and deformation of an initially spherical gas bubble released from rest in a liquid-filled, finite circular cylinder are numerically investigated. The bulk and gas phases are considered incompressible and immiscible. The bubble motion and deformation are characterized by the Morton number Mo, Eötvös number Eo, Reynolds number Re, Weber number We, density ratio, viscosity ratio, the ratios of the cylinder height and the cylinder radius to the diameter of the initially spherical bubble (H* =H/d0, R*=R/d0). Bubble rise in liquids described by Eo and Mo combinations ranging from (1,0.01) to (277.5,0.092), as appropriate to various terminal state Reynolds numbers (ReT) and shapes have been studied. The range of terminal state Reynolds numbers includes 0.02T<70. Bubble shapes at terminal states vary from spherical to intermediate spherical-cap–skirted. The numerical procedure employs a front tracking finite difference method coupled with a level contour reconstruction of the front. This procedure ensures a smooth distribution of the front points and conserves the bubble volume. For the wide range of Eo and Mo examined, bubble motion in cylinders of height H*=8 and R≥3, is noted to correspond to the rise in an infinite medium, both in terms of Reynolds number and shape at terminal state. In a thin cylindrical vessel (small R*) the motion of the bubble is retarded due to increased total drag and the bubble achieves terminal conditions within a short distance from release. The wake effects on bubble rise are reduced, and elongated bubbles may occur at appropriate conditions. For a fixed volume of the bubble, increasing the cylinder radius may result in the formation of well-defined rear recirculatory wakes that are associated with lateral bulging and skirt formation. The paper includes figures of bubble shape regimes for various values of R*, Eo, Mo, and ReT. Our predictions agree with existing results reported in the literature.Publication Evaporation and Combustion of a Slowly Moving Liquid Fuel Droplet: Higher-Order Theory(1996-01-25) Jog, Milind A.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Cohen, Ira M.The evaporation and combustion of a single-component fuel droplet which is moving slowly in a hot oxidant atmosphere have been analysed using perturbation methods. Results for the flow field, temperature and species distributions in each phase, interfacial heat and mass transfer, and the enhancement of the mass burning rate due to the presence of convection have all been developed correct to second order in the translational Reynolds number. This represents an advance over a previous study which analysed the problem to first order in the perturbation parameter. The primary motivation for the development of detailed analytical/numerical solutions correct to second order arises from the need for such a higher-order theory in order to investigate fuel droplet ignition and extinction characteristics in the presence of convective flow. Explanations for such a need, based on order of magnitude arguments, are included in this article. With a moving droplet, the shear at the interface causes circulatory motion inside the droplet. Owing to the large evaporation velocities at the droplet surface that usually accompany drop vaporization and burning, the entire flow field is not in the Stokes regime even for low translational Reynolds numbers. In view of this, the formulation for the continuous phase is developed by imposing slow translatory motion of the droplet as a perturbation to uniform radial flow associated with vigorous evaporation at the surface. Combustion is modelled by the inclusion of a fast chemical reaction in a thin reaction zone represented by the Burke-Schumann flame front. The complete solution for the problem correct to second order is obtained by simultaneously solving a coupled formulation for the dispersed and continuous phases. A noteworthy feature of the higher-order formulation is that both the flow field and transport equations require analysis by coupled singular perturbation procedures. The higher-order theory shows that, for identical conditions, compared with the first-order theory both the flame and the front stagnation point are closer to the surface of the drop, the evaporation is more vigorous, the droplet lifetime is shorter, and the internal vortical motion is asymmetric about the drop equatorial plane. These features are significant for ignition/extinction analyses since the prediction of the location of the point of ignition/extinction will depend upon such details. This article is the first of a two-part study; in the second part, analytical expressions and results obtained here will be incorporated into a detailed investigation of fuel droplet ignition and extinction. In view of the general nature of the formulation considered here, results presented have wider applicability in the general areas of interfacial fluid mechanics and heat/material transport. They are particularly useful in microgravity studies, in atmospheric sciences, in aerosol sciences, and in the prediction of material depletion from spherical particles.Publication Electrode Heating in a Wire-to-Plane Arc(1992) Jog, Milind A.; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.A steady wire-to-plane electric discharge has been modeled in a prolate spheroidal coordinate system with the wire shape taken as a hyperboloid of revolution. A set of continuum conservation equations for the charged particle densities and temperatures together with Poisson’s equation for the self-consistent electric potential describe the steady electric discharge process. These equations have been solved numerically to obtain ion and electron densities, temperature distribution, and electrode heat fluxes. Particle densities show the main body of the arc is quasineutral bounded by space charge sheaths at both electrodes. The temperature is greatest in a region around the discharge axis about one-third of the distance from the wire to the plane. Strong electric fields are concentrated in the electrode sheaths. The heat flux to the wire is sharply peaked near the tip but on the plane it decays slowly away from the discharge axis. The knowledge of heat transfer from the arc to the electrodes is useful in determining arc parameters that govern the ball formation process used in wire bonding of microelectronic semiconductor chips as well as welding processes.

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