## Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.

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Publication Flow Past a Liquid Drop with a Large Non-uniform Radial Velocity(1983-08-01) Sadhal, Satwindar S.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.In this analysis, the translation of a liquid drop experiencing a strong non-uniform radial velocity has been investigated. The situation arises when a moving liquid drop experiences condensation, evaporation or material decomposition at the surface. By simultaneously treating the flow fields inside and outside the drop, we have obtained physical results relevant to the problem. The magnitude of the radial velocity is allowed to be very large, but the drop motion is restricted to slow translation. The solution to the problem has been developed by considering a uniform radial flow with the translatory motion introduced as a perturbation. The role played by the inertial terms due to the strong radial field has been clearly delineated. The study has revealed several interesting features. An inward normal velocity on a slowly moving drop increases the drag. An increasing outward normal velocity decreases the drag up to a minimum beyond which it increases. The total drag force not only consists of contributions from the viscous and the form drags but also from the momentum transport at the interface. Since the liquid drop admits a non-zero tangential velocity, the tangential momentum convected by the radial velocity forms a part of this drag force. The circulation inside the drop decreases (increases) with an outward (inward) normal velocity. A sufficiently large non-uniform outward velocity causes the circulation to reverse. In the limit of the internal viscosity becoming infinite, our analysis collapses to the simple case of a translating rigid sphere experiencing a large non-uniform radial velocity. By letting the radial velocity become vanishingly small the Stokes-flow solution is recovered. An important contribution of the present study is the identification of a new singularity in the flow description. It accounts for both the inertial and the viscous forces and displays Stokeslet-like characteristics at infinity.Publication On the Stability of Electric Arc Discharges(1976-06-07) Whitman, A. M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Cohen, Ira M.The stability of electric arc discharges has been explored through the use of an energy balance coupled with charge conservation. In order to facilitate this analysis, a new model for the electrical conductivity function has been proposed. Asymptotic solutions for the arc governing equations have been obtained. Stability criteria have been developed from both the linear theory (infinitesimal size disturbance) and from a minimizing solution point of view for finite size disturbances. The results delineate an open region in the stability diagram where arc instabilities may be possible.Publication Electrode Heating in a Wire-to-Plane Arc(1992) Jog, Milind A.; Cohen, Ira M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.A steady wire-to-plane electric discharge has been modeled in a prolate spheroidal coordinate system with the wire shape taken as a hyperboloid of revolution. A set of continuum conservation equations for the charged particle densities and temperatures together with Poissonâ€™s equation for the self-consistent electric potential describe the steady electric discharge process. These equations have been solved numerically to obtain ion and electron densities, temperature distribution, and electrode heat fluxes. Particle densities show the main body of the arc is quasineutral bounded by space charge sheaths at both electrodes. The temperature is greatest in a region around the discharge axis about one-third of the distance from the wire to the plane. Strong electric fields are concentrated in the electrode sheaths. The heat flux to the wire is sharply peaked near the tip but on the plane it decays slowly away from the discharge axis. The knowledge of heat transfer from the arc to the electrodes is useful in determining arc parameters that govern the ball formation process used in wire bonding of microelectronic semiconductor chips as well as welding processes.Publication Laminar Condensation on a Moving Drop. Part 1. Singular Perturbation Technique(1984-02-01) Chung, J. N.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Sadhal, Satwindar S.In this paper, laminar condensation on a spherical drop in a forced flow is investigated. The drop experiences a strong, radial, condensation-induced velocity while undergoing slow translation. In view of the high condensation velocity, the flow field, although the drop experiences slow translation, is not in the Stokes-flow regime. The drop environment is assumed to consist of a mixture of saturated steam (condensable) and air (non-condensable). The study has been carried out in two different ways. In Part 1 the continuous phase is treated as quasi-steady and the governing equations for this phase are solved through a singular perturbation technique. The transient heat-up of the drop interior is solved by the series-truncation numerical method. The solution for the total problem is obtained by matching the results for the continuous and dispersed phases. I n Part 2 both the phases are treated as fully transient and the entire set of coupled equations are solved by numerical means. Validity of the quasi-steady assumption of Part 1 is discussed. Effects due to the presence of the non-condensable component and of the drop surface temperature on transport processes are discussed in both parts. A significant contribution of the present study is the inclusion of the roles played by both the viscous and the inertial effects in the problem treatment.Publication Heat Transfer in Surface-Cooled Objects Subject to Microwave Heating(1982-08-01) Foster, Kenneth R.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Sundararajan, Thirumalchari; Ramakrishna, KoneruSeveral investigators in microwave bioeffects research have exposed biological preparations to intense microwave fields, while at the same time cooling the sample with flowing water. We examine the heat transfer characteristics of this situation, to estimate the maximum temperature increase and thermal time constants that might be encountered in such an experiment. The sample is modeled as a uniform sphere, cylinder, or slab subject to uniform heating, which is located in an unbounded coolant flow. The heat transfer is determined by the Biot and Reynolds numbers (which reflect the geometry, fluid flow, and material thermal properties of the system) the temperature rise is governed by the heat conduction equation coupled with external convection. The results are expressed in terms of nondimensional quantities, from which the thermal response of a heated object of arbitrary size can be determined. At low coolant flow rates, the maximum temperature rise can be biologically significant, even for relatively small objects (of millimeter radius) exposed to moderate levels of microwave energy (with a SAR of ca. 100 mW/g). The results are valid also where the coolant is a gas or a liquid different from water, the only restriction being on the Reynolds number of the flow.Publication Generalized Langevin dynamics of a nanoparticle using a finite element approach: Thermostating with correlated noise(2011-09-16) Balakrishnan, Uma; Swaminathan, T. N.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M; Radhakrishnan, RaviA direct numerical simulation (DNS) procedure is employed to study the thermal motion of a nanoparticle in an incompressible Newtonian stationary fluid medium with the generalized Langevin approach. We consider both the Markovian (white noise) and non-Markovian (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and Mittag-Leffler noise) processes. Initial locations of the particle are at various distances from the bounding wall to delineate wall effects. At thermal equilibrium, the numerical results are validated by comparing the calculated translational and rotational temperatures of the particle with those obtained from the equipartition theorem. The nature of the hydrodynamic interactions is verified by comparing the velocity autocorrelation functions and mean square displacements with analytical results. Numerical predictions of wall interactions with the particle in terms of mean square displacements are compared with analytical results. In the non-Markovian Langevin approach, an appropriate choice of colored noise is required to satisfy the power-law decay in the velocity autocorrelation function at long times. The results obtained by using non-Markovian Mittag-Leffler noise simultaneously satisfy the equipartition theorem and the long-time behavior of the hydrodynamic correlations for a range of memory correlation times. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process does not provide the appropriate hydrodynamic correlations. Comparing our DNS results to the solution of an one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation, it is observed that where the thermostat adheres to the equipartition theorem, the characteristic memory time in the noise is consistent with the inherent time scale of the memory kernel. The performance of the thermostat with respect to equilibrium and dynamic properties for various noise schemes is discussed.Publication Linear Stability of a Viscous-Inviscid Interface(1985-04-03) Hogan, J. M.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.In this paper the stability of the interface separating fluids of widely differing viscosities has been examined. It is shown that a viscous-inviscid (V-I) model offers a consistent zeroth-order approximation to the stability problem. The zeroth-order solution is obtained by neglecting the smallest-order effect, viz., viscosity on the less viscous side of the interface. In this sense, the V-I model significantly differs from the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) approach where both the viscosities are dropped in a single step. A closed form solution for the stability criterion governing the V-I model has been obtained, and a novel instability mechanism is described. It is shown that the V-I model is also a consistent zeroth-order approximation for the Rayleigh-Taylor problem of a viscous-viscous, nonflowing interface when the viscosity ratio tends to zero. For the interface separating two viscous, nonflowing, incompressible fluids, exact solutions for the velocities, pressures, and interface displacement for a disturbance of a given wavelength have been provided for the stable (lighter fluid on top) wave motion. By discussing the roles played by the dynamic and kinematic viscosities, it is made clear why neither the V-I nor the K-H model should apply to the air-water interface. The results of the V-I model compare well with experimental observations. The V-I model serves as an excellent basis for comparison in detailed numerical studies of the viscous-viscous interface.Publication Computational Model or Nanocarrier Binding to Endothelium Validated Using in Vivo, in Vitro and Atomic Force Microscopy Experiments(2010-09-21) Liu, Jin; Zern, Blaine; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M; Muzykantov, Vladimir R; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Weller, Gregory E.R.A computational methodology based on Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) and the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM) has been developed to calculate the absolute binding free energy between functionalized nanocarriers (NC) and endothelial cell (EC) surfaces. The calculated NC binding free energy landscapes yield binding affinities that agree quantitatively when directly compared against analogous measurements of specific antibodycoated NCs (100 nm in diameter) to intracellular adhesion molecule- 1 (ICAM-1) expressing EC surface in in vitro cell-culture experiments. The effect of antibody surface coverage (Ïƒs) of NC on binding simulations reveals a threshold Ïƒs value below which the NC binding affinities reduce drastically and drop lower than that of single anti-ICAM-1 molecule to ICAM-1. The model suggests that the dominant effect of changing Ïƒs around the threshold is through a change in multivalent interactions; however, the loss in translational and rotational entropies are also important. Consideration of shear flow and glycocalyx does not alter the computed threshold of antibody surface coverage. The computed trend describing the effect of Ïƒs on NC binding agrees remarkably well with experimental results of in vivo targeting of the anti- ICAM-1 coated NCs to pulmonary endothelium in mice. Model results are further validated through close agreement between computed NC rupture-force distribution and measured values in atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments. The three-way quantitative agreement with AFM, in vitro (cell-culture), and in vivo experiments establishes the mechanical, thermodynamic, and physiological consistency of our model. Hence, our computational protocol represents a quantitative and predictive approach for model-driven design and optimization of functionalized nanocarriers in targeted vascular drug deliveryPublication Effect of a Soluble Surfactant on a Finite-Sized Bubble Motion in a Blood Vessel(2010-01-01) Swaminathan, Tirumani N.; Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.We present detailed results for the motion of a finite-sized gas bubble in a blood vessel. The bubble (dispersed phase) size is taken to be such as to nearly occlude the vessel. The bulk medium is treated as a shear thinning Casson fluid and contains a soluble surfactant that adsorbs and desorbs from the interface. Three different vessel sizes, corresponding to a small artery, a large arteriole, and a small arteriole, in normal humans, are considered. The haematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) has been taken to be 0.45. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeusâ€“Lindqvist effect is taken into account. Bubble motion causes temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. Shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are associated with a recirculation vortex at the rear of the moving bubble. The presence of the surfactant reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. Our numerical results for bubble shapes and wall shear stresses may help explain phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness.Publication The Dynamics of Two Spherical Particles in a Confined Rotating Flow: Pedalling Motion(2008-03-25) Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Hu, Howard H.; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.We have numerically investigated the interaction dynamics between two rigid spherical particles moving in a fluid-filled cylinder that is rotating at a constant speed. The cylinder rotation is about a horizontal axis. The particle densities are less than that of the fluid. The numerical procedure employed to solve the mathematical formulation is based on a three-dimensional arbitrary Larangianâ€“Eulerian (ALE), moving mesh finite-element technique, described in a frame of reference rotating with the cylinder. Results are obtained in the ranges of particle Reynolds number, 1