Webber, Bonnie L
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PublicationSimulated Casualties and Medics for Emergency Training(1997) Chi, Diane M; Kokkevis, Evangelos; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Bindiganavale, Ramamani; Webber, Bonnie L; Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L; Badler, Norman IThe MediSim system extends virtual environment technology to allow medical personnel to interact with and train on simulated casualties. The casualty model employs a three-dimensional animated human body that displays appropriate physical and behavioral responses to injury and/or treatment. Medical corpsmen behaviors were developed to allow the actions of simulated medical personnel to conform to both military practice and medical protocols during patient assessment and stabilization. A trainee may initiate medic actions through a mouse and menu interface; a VR interface has also been created by Stansfield's research group at Sandia National Labs. PublicationDiscourse Deixis: Reference to Discourse Segments(1988-04-01) Webber, Bonnie L; Webber, Bonnie LComputational approaches to discourse understanding have a two-part goal: (1) to identify those aspects of discourse understanding that require process-based accounts, and (2)to characterize the processes and data structures they involve. To date, in the area of reference, process-based accounts have been developed for subsequent reference via anaphoric pronouns and reference via definite descriptors. In this paper, I propose and argue for a process-based account of subsequent reference via deictic expressions. A significant feature of this account if that it attributes distinct mental reality to units of text often called discourse segments, a reality that is distinct from that of the entities described therein. PublicationFlexible Support for Trauma Management Through Goal-Directed Reasoning and Planning(1991-07-01) Webber, Bonnie L.; Webber, Bonnie L.; Rymon, Ron; Clarke, John R.We describe a system, TraumAID, which has been designed to provide decision support throughout the initial definitive management of severely injured patients (i.e., after their initial evaluation, resuscitation, and stabilization). Over the course of initial definitive management, TraumAID recommends appropriate procedures to be carried out, based on currently available evidence and on the complexity and urgency of the situation. TraumAID's ability to deal flexibly with complex and often urgent situations comes from its ability to reason separately about the management goals that should be achieved and about the means that are situationally appropriate for achieving them. In this paper, we describe TraumAID's approach to trauma management in more detail, showing in particular how it enables TraumAID to adapt its reasoning and recommendations to the urgency with which a patient's condition must be addressed. PublicationIntegrating Anatomy and Physiology for Behavior Modeling(1995) DeCarlo, Douglas; Kaye, Jonathan; Webber, Bonnie L.; Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L.; Badler, Norman IIn producing realistic, animatable models of the human body, we see much to be gained from developing a functional anatomy that links the anatomical and physiological behavior of the body through fundamental causal principles. This paper describes our current Finite Element Method implementation of a simplified lung and chest cavity during normal quiet breathing and then disturbed by a simple pneumothorax. The lung model interacts with the model of the chest cavity through applied forces. The models are modular, and a second lung and more complex chest wall model can be added without disturbing the model of the other lung. During inhalation, a breathing force (corresponding to exertion of the diaphragm and chest wall muscles) is applied, causing the chest cavity to expand. When this force is removed (at the start of exhalation), the stretched lung recoils, applying pressure forces to the chest wall which cause the chest cavity to contract. To simulate a simple pneumothorax, the intrapleural pressure is set to atmospheric pressure, which removes pressure forces holding the lung close to the chest cavity and results in the lung returning to its unstretched shape. PublicationThe Penn Discourse Treebank 2.0 Annotation Manual(2007-12-17) Prasad, Rashmi; Miltsakaki, Eleni; Dinesh, Nikhil; Lee, Alan; Joshi, Aravind; Robaldo, Livio; Webber, Bonnie L; Prasad, Rashmi; Miltsakaki, Eleni; Dinesh, Nikhil; Lee, Alan; Joshi, Aravind; Robaldo, Livio; Webber, Bonnie LThis report contains the guidelines for the annotation of discourse relations in the Penn Discourse Treebank (http://www.seas.upenn.edu/~pdtb), PDTB. Discourse relations in the PDTB are annotated in a bottom up fashion, and capture both lexically realized relations as well as implicit relations. Guidelines in this report are provided for all aspects of the annotation, including annotation explicit discourse connectives, implicit relations, arguments of relations, senses of relations, and the attribution of relations and their arguments. The report also provides descriptions of the annotation format representation. PublicationMediSim: Simulated Medical Corpsmen and Casualties for Medical Forces Planning and Training(1995-03-01) Badler, Norman I; Badler, Norman I; Clarke, John R; Hollick, Michael J; Kokkevis, Evangelos; Webber, Bonnie L; Bindiganavale, Ramamani; Webber, Bonnie L; Chi, Diane M; Foster, Nick; Ogunyemi, Omolola; Kaye, JonathanThe MediSim system extends virtual environments (both local and network) to represent simulated medical personnel interacting with simulated casualties. Our technology fosters dual-use applications involving planning, training, and evaluation of both medical corpsmen and civilian EMTs. Behaviors and behavioral control are being developed for the medical corpsmen that will enable their actions on the digital battlefield to conform to both military practice and medical protocols. From situationally-appropriate injury models, a set of physical and behavioral manifestations in a simulated casualty will be determined and portrayed on a three-dimensional body. PublicationProgressive Horizon Planning(1990-10-01) Webber, Bonnie L.; Webber, Bonnie L.; Clarke, John R.In an earlier paper [Rymon et a1 89], we showed how domain localities and regularities can be used to reduce the complexity of finding a trauma management plan that satisfies a set of diagnostic and therapeutic goals. Here, we present another planning idea - Progressive Horizon - useful for optimizing such plans in domains where planning can be regarded as an incremental process, continuously interleaved with situation - goals analysis and plan execution. In such domains, planned action cannot be delayed until all essential information is available: A plan must include actions intended to gather information as well as ones intended to change the state of the world. Interleaving planning with reasoning and execution, a progressive horizon planner constructs a plan that answers all currently known needs but has only its first few actions optimized (those within its planning horizon). As the executor cames out actions and reports back to the system, the current goals and the plan are updated based on actual performance and newly discovered goals and information. The new plan is then optimized within a newly set horizon. In this paper, we describe those features of a domain that are salient for the use of a progressive horizon planning paradigm. Since we believe that the paradigm may be useful in other domains, we abstract from the exact techniques used by our program to discuss the merits of the general approach. PublicationSimulation and analysis of complex human tasks(1995-09-01) Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L; Becket, Welton; Webber, Bonnie LWe discuss how the combination of a realistic human figure with a high-level behavioral control interface allow the construction of detailed simulations of humans performing manual tasks from which inferences about human performance requirements can be made. The Jack human modeling environment facilitates the real-time simulation of humans performing sequences of tasks such as walking, lifting, reaching, and grasping in a complex simulated environment. Analysis capabilities include strength, reachability, and visibility; moreover results from these tests can affect an unfolding simulation. PublicationPlanning for Animation(1996-08-01) Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L; Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L; Becket, Welton; Geib, Christopher W; Moore, Michael B; Pelachaud, Catherine; Reich, Barry D; Stone, Matthew PublicationCasualty modeling for real-time medical training(1996-12-01) Badler, Norman I; Badler, Norman I; Webber, Bonnie L; Clarke, John R.; Webber, Bonnie LWe present a model for simulating casualties in virtual environments for real-time medical training. It allows a user to choose diagnostic and therapeutic actions to carry out on a simulated casualty who will manifest appropriate physiological, behavioral, and physical responses. Currently, the user or a "stealth instructor" can specify one or more injuries that the casualty has sustained. The model responds by continuously determining the state of the casualty, responding appropriately to medical assessment and treatment procedures. So far, we have modeled four medical conditions and over twenty procedures. The model has been designed to handle the addition of other injuries and medical procedures.