Ahn, Kook Jin
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PublicationAnalyzing Massive Graphs in the Semi-streaming Model(2013-01-01) Ahn, Kook JinMassive graphs arise in a many scenarios, for example, traffic data analysis in large networks, large scale scientific experiments, and clustering of large data sets. The semi-streaming model was proposed for processing massive graphs. In the semi-streaming model, we have a random accessible memory which is near-linear in the number of vertices. The input graph (or equivalently, edges in the graph) is presented as a sequential list of edges (insertion-only model) or edge insertions and deletions (dynamic model). The list is read-only but we may make multiple passes over the list. There has been a few results in the insertion-only model such as computing distance spanners and approximating the maximum matching. In this thesis, we present some algorithms and techniques for (i) solving more complex problems in the semi-streaming model, (for example, problems in the dynamic model) and (ii) having better solutions for the problems which have been studied (for example, the maximum matching problem). In course of both of these, we develop new techniques with broad applications and explore the rich trade-offs between the complexity of models (insertion-only streams vs. dynamic streams), the number of passes, space, accuracy, and running time. 1. We initiate the study of dynamic graph streams. We start with basic problems such as the connectivity problem and computing the minimum spanning tree. These problems are trivial in the insertion-only model. However, they require non-trivial (and multiple passes for computing the exact minimum spanning tree) algorithms in the dynamic model. 2. Second, we present a graph sparsification algorithm in the semi-streaming model. A graph sparsification is a sparse graph that approximately preserves all the cut values of a graph. Such a graph acts as an oracle for solving cut-related problems, for example, the minimum cut problem and the multicut problem. Our algorithm produce a graph sparsification with high probability in one pass. 3. Third, we use the primal-dual algorithms to develop the semi-streaming algorithms. The primal-dual algorithms have been widely accepted as a framework for solving linear programs and semidefinite programs faster. In contrast, we apply the method for reducing space and number of passes in addition to reducing the running time. We also present some examples that arise in applications and show how to apply the techniques: the multicut problem, the correlation clustering problem, and the maximum matching problem. As a consequence, we also develop near-linear time algorithms for the $b$-matching problems which were not known before.