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PublicationInnovation Ecosystems for Precision Medicine Implementation(2020-01-01) Gong, HoytLeaders in policy, business and healthcare, while receptive to the potential of precision medicine applications, often struggle with finding a consistent and standardized approach for both evaluating their health system’s current readiness for the practical implementation and integration of precision medicine and elucidating the capabilities for future growth. This paper discusses the necessary functions of business producers, resource funders, and regulatory governors to incentivize, establish, and build a continuously growing economic marketplace for precision medicine technologies. Under the broader faculty of precision medicine implementation, the innovation ecosystem refers to the various forms of novel developments in precision medicine and include new products, firms, technology, business models, behavioral changes and policies. Four foundational areas and their corresponding capabilities are studied in the paper: (1) Innovation Governance, (2) Innovation Financing, (3) Community and Partnerships and (4) Workforce and Infrastructure. The potential for international and national-level frameworks informed by this paper and early pilot projects aim to support the development of standards and guidelines that will inform precision medicine policies and regulations. PublicationCharacterizing the Economic Analysis of Technology Appraisal in Global Health Systems(2018-01-01) Gong, HoytGlobal Health Technology Assessment (HTA) bodies vary in their scope and approach in Cost Effective Analyses (CEA) evaluating the clinical and economic efficacy of a proposed therapeutic against established metrics. This study characterized specific CEA approaches of various countries across standardized development indices and tested conditions of regression correlation against respective country health outcomes of interest. Additionally, we validate the existence of implicit and explicit values in country willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds and its statistically significance with country health expenditure and quality of care. Our multivariate regression models show that while CEA characteristics vary across countries, ultimate health outcomes are not dictated by CEA approach factors but rather in the broader context of country GDPPC development.