Richmond, Therese S
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PublicationA Model to Advance Nursing Science in Trauma Practice and Injury Outcomes Research(2011-01-01) Richmond, Therese S; Aitken, Leanne MAims: This discussion paper reports development of a model to advance nursing science and practice in trauma care based on an analysis of the literature and expert opinion. Background: The continuum of clinical care provided to trauma patients extends from the time of injury through to long-term recovery and final outcomes. Nurses bring a unique expertise to meet the complex physical and psychosocial needs of trauma patients and their families to influence outcomes across this entire continuum. Data Sources: Literature was obtained by searching CINAHL, PubMed and OvidMedline databases for 1990 – 2010. Search terms included trauma, nursing, scope of practice and role, with results restricted to those published in English. Manual searches of relevant journals and websites were undertaken. Discussion: Core concepts in this trauma outcomes model include environment, person/family, structured care settings, long term outcomes and nursing interventions. The relationships between each of these concepts extend across all phases of care. Intermediate outcomes are achieved in each phase of care and influence and have congruence with long term outcomes. Implications for Policy and Practice: This model is intended to provide a framework to assist trauma nurses and researchers to consider the injured person in the context of the social, economic, cultural and physical environment from which they come and the long term goals that each person has during recovery. The entire model requires testing in research and assessment of its practical contribution to practice. Conclusion: Planning and integrating care across the trauma continuum, as well as recognition of the role of the injured person’s background, family and resources, will lead to improved long term outcomes. PublicationThe Relationship Between Community Violence Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms in Urban Adolescents(2008-12-01) McDonald, Catherine C; Richmond, Therese SUrban adolescents are exposed to a substantial amount of community violence which has the potential to influence psychological functioning. To examine the relationship between community violence exposure and mental health symptoms in urban adolescents, a literature review using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, CSA Social Services and CSA Sociological Abstracts was conducted. Search terms included adolescent/adolescence, violence, urban, mental health, well-being, emotional distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder and aggression. Twenty-six empirical research articles from 1997 to 2007 met inclusion criteria for review. Findings indicate an influence of community violence exposure on mental health symptoms, particularly posttraumatic stress and aggression. Mediators and moderators for community violence exposure and mental health symptoms help explain relationships. Limitations in the literature are the lack of consistency in measurement and analysis of community violence exposure, including assessment of proximity and time frame of exposure, and in analysis of victimization and witnessing of community violence. Knowledge about identification of urban adolescents exposed to chronic community violence and who experience mental health symptoms is critical to mental health nursing practice and research. PublicationOutcome From Serious Injury in Older Adults(2006-01-01) Jacoby, Sara F; Ackerson, Theimann H; Richmond, Therese SPurpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the research published in peer-reviewed journals between 1996 and 2005 that examine factors affecting the physical outcomes of older adults after serious traumatic injury. Organizing Construct: 27 primary research studies published in the last 10 years describe in-hospital and long-term outcomes of serious injury among older adults. Research specific to isolated hip injury, traumatic brain injury and burn trauma was excluded. Methods: An integrative review of research published between January 1996 and January 2005 was carried out to examine the relationship between older age and outcome from severe injury. MEDLINE, BIOSIS previews, CINAHL and PsycINFO databases were searched using the MeSH terms: injury, serious injury, trauma and multiple trauma, and crossed with type, severity, medical/surgical management, complication, outcome, mortality, morbidity, survival, disability, quality of life, functional status, functional recovery, function, and placement. Findings: Older adults experience higher short and long-term mortality when compared to younger adults. The relationship between older age and poorer outcome persists when adjusting for injury severity, number of injuries, comorbidities, and complications. At the same time, injury severity, number of injuries, complications, and gender each independently correlate to increased mortality among older adults. The body of research is limited by over-reliance on retrospective data and heterogeneity in definitional criteria for the older adult population. Conclusions: Additional research is needed to clarify the contributory effect of variables such as psychosocial sequelae and physiologic resilience on injury outcome. The field of geriatric trauma would benefit from further population-based prospective investigation of the determinants of injury outcome in older adults in order to guide interventions and acute care treatment. PublicationSeriously Injured Urban Black Men’s Perceptions of Clinical Research Participation(2016-12-01) Ulrich, Connie M; Bruce, Marta M; Richmond, Therese S; Kassam-Adams, NancyPurpose: Black men are uniquely vulnerable in American society and our health care system: they bear a disproportionate burden of injury, yet are underrepresented in clinical research. This study aimed to explore the reasons why urban Black men with serious injuries chose to participate in clinical research and their concerns about research participation. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted within the context of a larger study focused on psychological effects of serious injury in urban Black men; 83 Black men with serious injuries were recruited while hospitalized in an urban trauma center. Informed consent was obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in participants’ homes three months after discharge from the hospital and were audiotaped, transcribed, and de-identified. Thematic content analysis was used to identify themes about perceptions of participating in clinical research. Results: The mean age of our sample was 38.2 years, and the mean injury severity score was 10.7 (SD 9.6). The majority (53.2 %) of injuries was due to interpersonal violence, and 47 % were due to unintentional mechanisms. Eight reasons for research participation emerged from the data: human connection, altruism/community, self-improvement, compensation, gaining knowledge, curiosity/interest, low risk, and reciprocity. Conclusions: A major finding was that injured urban Black men participated in clinical research for the opportunity for human and therapeutic connection. Despite some expressions of mistrust, participants were willing to participate for altruistic reasons rooted in community priorities, and as part of their recovery process post-injury. PublicationA Delphi Study on Research Priorities for Trauma Nursing(1994-05-01) Bayley, Elizabeth W; Richmond, Therese S; Noroian, Elizabeth L; Allen, Lois RObjectives: To identify and prioritize research questions of importance to trauma patient care and of interest to trauma nurses. Methods: A three-round Delphi technique was used to solicit, identify, and prioritize problems for trauma nursing research. In round 1, experienced trauma nurses (N = 208) generated 513 problems, which were analyzed, categorized, and collapsed into 111 items for subsequent rounds. Round 2 participants rated each research question on a 1 to 7 scale on two criteria: impact on patient welfare and value for practicing nurses. Group median scores provided by 166 round 2 respondents and respondents' individual round 2 scores were indicated on the round 3 questionnaire. Subjects rated the questions again on the same criteria and indicated whether nurses, independently or in collaboration with other health professionals, should assume responsibility for that research. Median and mean scores and rank order were determined for each item. Results: Respondents who completed all three rounds (n = 137) had a mean of 8.3 years of trauma experience. Nine research questions ranked within the top 20 on both criteria. The two research questions that ranked highest on both criteria were: What are the most effective nursing interventions in the prevention of pulmonary and circulatory complications in trauma patients? and What are the most effective methods for preventing aspiration in trauma patients during the postoperative phase? The third-ranked question regarding patient welfare was: What psychological and lifestyle changes result from traumatic injury? Regarding value for practicing nurses, What are the most effective educational methods to prepare and maintain proficiency in trauma care providers? ranked third. Conclusion: These research priorities provide impetus and direction for nursing and collaborative investigation in trauma care. PublicationMethodological Considerations in Acute-Care Research: Issues in Securing Self-Report Data(1995) Richmond, Therese SConducting research in the acutely ill and injured is important to broaden the scientific foundation of nursing practice for the specialty. Given the nature of acute illness, challenges to the collection of self-report data are numerous, but they are not insurmountable. Attending to these challenges and planning for strategies to enhance the accuracy of data are important tasks for any investigator considering research in groups of patients with acute illness or injury. PublicationJourney Towards Recovery Following Physical Trauma(2000-01-01) Richmond, Therese S; Thompson, Hilaire Jane; Deatrick, Janet A; Kauder, Donald RConvalescence and recovery following illness are of central importance to nursing. These themes have been explored increasingly in the literature. The focus, however, has been primarily on the process of integrating chronic illness into one’s life. Recovery from physical injury is rarely addressed. A body of work focusing on physical trauma demonstrates that recovery is often not complete after injuries that have not been viewed as disabling. To illuminate understanding of recovery following physical trauma, the purpose of our 1997 study was to describe more thoroughly the nature of recovery. A total of 63 adults, in a convenience sample, who survived serious physical trauma, were interviewed 2·5 years after injury using an open-ended semistructured interview guide. Three themes were identified: event, fallout, and moving-on. These themes provided the organizing structure for exploring the journey to recovery. This journey, as disclosed by the seriously injured, does not necessarily correspond with the views of most trauma clinicians. Traumatic events create a line of demarcation, separating lives into before and after. The event becomes the starting point of a journey to resume one’s life. The event itself is more than the trauma; it is the perceptual and contextual experience that needs to be incorporated into a person’s essence. Fallout from the injury is multifaceted and includes physical, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions. Moving-on in this journey is nonlinear as survivors recognize their lives are forever different. The survivors’ accounts suggest that nurses should carefully consider the question, ‘What is successful recovery?’ PublicationReasons for and Reservations about Research Participation in Acutely Injured Adults(2015-03-01) Irani, Elliane; Richmond, Therese SPURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the reasons adult patients seeking emergency department care for minor injuries agree to participate in clinical research and to identify their reservations about participating in a research study. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort study of 275 adults who sought emergency department care for physical injury and were followed over 12 months. At the final interview, participants were asked open-ended short-answer questions about their perception of participating in the study. Free text responses were analyzed using conventional content analysis. FINDINGS: The final sample of 214 participants was composed equally of males and females, predominantly Black (54%) and White (42%), with a mean age of 41 years. Six themes about reasons for participation emerged from free text responses: being asked, altruism, potential for personal benefit, financial gain, curiosity, and valuing or knowledge of research. Most did not report reservations. Those reservations identified included time constraints, confidentiality, and whether patients felt well suited to fulfill the study requirements. CONCLUSIONS: Although injured patients are identified by the research community as vulnerable, they are willing to participate in research studies for diverse reasons, and their participation is commonly associated with positive experiences. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Understanding perceptions of participants' experiences of being in a research study after acute injury can guide researchers to improve future study protocols and recruitment strategies in order to optimize participants' experiences. Recruitment and retention into clinical research studies is essential to build nursing science to enhance the recovery of injured individuals. PublicationYouth's Strategies for Staying Safe and Coping With the Stress of Living in Violent Communities.(2010-09-01) Teitelman, Anne M; McDonald, Catherine C; Wiebe, Douglas; McDonald, Catherine C; Thomas, Nicole; Guerra, Terry; Richmond, Therese S; Kassam-Adams, NancyYouth living in urban environments of pervasive violence are exposed to a variety of violence-related stressors. This qualitative descriptive study sought to ascertain how community-dwelling youth perceived exposure to violence and how these youth identified and used available resources. The intent of this community-based participatory research study was to help inform the design of a youth violence prevention center intervention. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 18 youth ages 10-16. Youth reported high levels of exposure to neighborhood violence. A theme of identifying and navigating safe and unsafe places emerged. Other stressors were more proximal and included interpersonal issues and conflicts. Youth used neighborhood and individual resources to cope with stressors. Youth maintained a high level of vigilance and developed clear strategies to safely navigate violent neighborhoods. Implications for youth due to the constant vigilance and exquisite sensitivity to stressors of chronic neighborhood violence are discussed. PublicationCharacteristics and Outcomes of Serious Traumatic Injury in Older Adults(2002-02-01) Richmond, Therese S; Kauder, Donald R; Strumpf, Neville; Meredith, TammyObjectives: The aims were to: 1) describe the seriously injured older adult; 2) characterize and compare the differences in injury characteristics and outcomes in three subgroups of seriously injured older adults: 65-74 years, 75-84 years, and >85 years of age; 3) identify risk factors for death, complications, and discharge placement at hospital discharge. Design: A retrospective secondary analysis of a statewide trauma data set from 1988-1997. Setting: Data submitted from all designated trauma centers in Pennsylvania. Participants: The data set yielded 38,707 patients with a mean age of 77.5 years with serious injury (mean number of injuries = 3.6, mean number of body systems involved = 2). Measurements: Key outcomes were mortality, complications, and discharge placement. Abbreviated Injury Score categorized injuries and Injury Severity Score (ISS) quantified anatomic severity of injury. Results: Mortality was 10%. Mean length of stay 11.5 days. 52.2% of survivors were discharged home and 25.4% to a skilled nursing facility. Injury severity, total number of injuries, complications and increasing age were predictors of mortality (p<.01). The presence of pre-existing co-morbid medical conditions increased the odds of experiencing a complication over three-fold. Increasing age, total number of injuries, injury to extremities or abdominal contents, injuries due to falls, and lower functional level predicted discharge to a skilled nursing facility (p<.01). Conclusions: Traumatic injury in older adults are typically multisystem, life-threatening, and affects older adults of all ages. The standard ISS does not fully capture the potential for mortality in older adults and does not predict discharge placement. The majority of older adults survive multisystem injury. Our findings indicate the need to examine outcomes beyond mortality and to make the identification and management of co-morbid conditions a priority. A geriatric consultation service could be an important additional to the interdisciplinary trauma team.