Gorman, Robert C.

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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of myocardial apoptosis
    (2006-12-01) Ranji, Mahsa; Gorman, Joseph H; Kanemoto, Shinya; Gorman, Robert C; Matsubara, Muneaki; Jaggard, Dwight; Grosso, Michael A; Chance, Britton
    Fluorometry is used to detect intrinsic flavoprotein (FP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide NADH signals in an open-chest rabbit model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Myocyte apoptosis has been shown clinically to contribute to infarct size following reperfusion of ischemic myocardium. A noninvasive means of assessing apoptosis in this setting would aid in the treatment of subsequent ventricular remodeling. We show that in vivo fluorometry can be useful in apoptosis detection in open-chest surgeries. Specific changes in myocardial redox states have been shown to indicate the presence of apoptosis. Two main mitochondrial intrinsic fluorophores, NADH and FP signals, were measured during normoxia, ischemia, and reperfusion experimental protocol. Ischemia was induced by occlusion of the largest branch of the circumflex coronary artery and fluorescence signals are collected by applying two different fluorescence techniques: in vivo fluorometry and postmortem cryoimaging. The first technique was employed to detect FP and NADH signals in vivo and the latter technique uses freeze trapping and lowtemperature fluorescence imaging. The heart is snap frozen while still in the chest cavity to make a "snapshot" of the metabolic state of the tissue. After freezing, the ischemic area and its surrounding border zone were excised and the sample was embedded in a frozen buffer for cryoscanning. These two data sets, in vivo fluorometry and low temperature redox scanning, show consistent extreme oxidation of the mitochondrial redox states (higher redox ratio) suggesting the initiation of apoptosis following reperfusion. This represents the first attempt to assess myocyte apoptosis in the beating heart.
  • Publication
    Quantifying Acute Myocardial Injury Using Ratiometric Fluorometry
    (2009-05-01) Hinmon, Robin H; Jaggard, Dwight L; Ranji, Mahsa; Chance, Britton; Matsubara, Muneaki; Gorman, Robert C; Leshnower, Bradley G; Gorman, Joseph H
    Early reperfusion is the best therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). Effectiveness, however, varies significantly between patients and has implications for long-term prognosis and treatment. A technique to assess the extent of myocardial salvage after reperfusion therapy would allow for high-risk patients to be identified in the early post-MI period. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with cell death following myocardial reperfusion and can be quantified by fluorometry. Therefore, we hypothesized that variations in the fluorescence of mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavoprotein (FP) can be used acutely to predict the degree of myocardial injury. Thirteen rabbits had coronary occlusion for 30 min followed by 3 h of reperfusion. To produce a spectrum of infarct sizes, six animals were infused cyclosporine A prior to ischemia. Using a specially designed fluorometric probe, NADH and FP fluorescence were measured in the ischemic area. Changes in NADH and FP fluorescence, as early as 15 min after reperfusion, correlated with postmortem assessment infarct size (r=0.695, p<0.01). This correlation strengthened with time (r=0.827, p<0.01 after 180 min). Clinical application of catheter-based myocardial fluorometry may provide a minimally invasive technique for assessing the early response to reperfusion therapy.
  • Publication
    Injectable Hydrogel Properties Influence Infarct Expansion and Extent of Postinfarction Left Ventricular Remodeling in an Ovine Model
    (2010-05-19) Ifkovits, Jamie L.; Tous, Elena; Koomalsingh, Kevin J.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Burdick, Jason A.; Minakawa, Masahito; Robb, J. Daniel
    A recent trend has emerged that involves myocardial injection of biomaterials, containing cells or acellular, following myocardial infarction (MI) to influence the remodeling response through both biological and mechanical effects. Despite the number of different materials injected in these approaches, there has been little investigation into the importance of material properties on therapeutic outcomes. This work focuses on the investigation of injectable hyaluronic acid (MeHA) hydrogels that have tunable mechanics and gelation behavior. Specifically, two MeHA formulations that exhibit similar degradation and tissue distribution upon injection but have differential moduli (∼8 versus ∼43 kPa) were injected into a clinically relevant ovine MI model to evaluate the associated salutary effect of intramyocardial hydrogel injection on the remodeling response based on hydrogel mechanics. Treatment with both hydrogels significantly increased the wall thickness in the apex and basilar infarct regions compared with the control infarct. However, only the higher-modulus (MeHA High) treatment group had a statistically smaller infarct area compared with the control infarct group. Moreover, reductions in normalized end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes were observed for the MeHA High group. This group also tended to have better functional outcomes (cardiac output and ejection fraction) than the low-modulus (MeHA Low) and control infarct groups. This study provides fundamental information that can be used in the rational design of therapeutic materials for treatment of MI.