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PublicationMeasuring The Impact Of Pedagogical Reform On Children In Middle Income Countries: Classroom Size(2023-01-01) Patel, AaryaEducation reform should be strategically implemented to reduce the magnitude of childhood inequalities reflected in SDG 4. Within this broad topic, this study seeks to understand the relationship between the pupil-teacher ratio of a classroom and student exam performance across South Africa and India. The current literature reveals that targeted education reform improves student cognition. However, there is dissent around the impact of classroom size on student achievement. This study quantitatively compares Higher Secondary School Examination pass rates between four districts within Mumbai, India, and Matriculation Examination pass rates between four schools within KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Categorical data analyses were run to determine if the difference in pass rates between the districts or schools is significant. A case analysis of each country reveals that secondary school students across Mumbai and KwaZulu Natal benefit from learning in classrooms with lower pupil-teacher ratios. This study does not produce causal or fully externalizable results, and limiting factors are illuminated through conversations with non-governmental organizations across both countries.