Friedman, Joseph S

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  • Publication
    The Rapid Sequence of Events Forcing the Senate's Hand: A Reappraisal of the Seventeenth Amendment, 1890-1913
    (2009-03-30) Friedman, Joseph S
    For over 125 years, from the ratification of the Constitution to the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, the voting public did not elect U.S. senators. Instead, as a result of careful planning by the Founding Fathers, state legislatures alone possessed the authority to elect two senators to represent their respective interests in Washington. It did not take long for second and third generation Americans to question the legitimacy of this process. To many observers, the system was in dire need of reform, but the stimulus for a popular elections amendment was controversial and not inevitable. This essay examines why reform came in 1911 with the Senate’s unexpected passage of the Seventeenth Amendment, which was ratified twenty-four months later in the first year of Woodrow Wilson’s presidency.
  • Publication
    Mahatma Gandhi's Vision for the Future of India: The Role of Enlightened Anarchy
    (2008-10-01) Friedman, Joseph S
    Few would dispute the notion that Mahatma K. Gandhi was one of the twentieth century’s transformative political and spiritual leaders. Among his many notable contributions, Gandhi is rightly credited with pioneering Satyagraha, resistance to tyranny though mass civil disobedience, and vocalizing a transcendent message that helped the Indian National Congress acquire independence from the British in August 1947. Often forgotten or omitted by standard histories, however, are Gandhi’s idealistic leanings that in fact compromised the universality of his appeal and confounded the ideological underpinnings of the Indian nation. His vision for India’s future was highly unorthodox.