Now showing 1 - 10 of 18
PublicationEnhanced Peculiar Velocities in Brane-induced Gravity(2010-08-17) Wyman, Mark; Khoury, JustinThe mounting evidence for anomalously large peculiar velocities in our Universe presents a challenge for the ΛCDM paradigm. The recent estimates of the large-scale bulk flow by Watkins et al. are inconsistent at the nearly 3σ level with ΛCDM predictions. Meanwhile, Lee and Komatsu have recently estimated that the occurrence of high-velocity merging systems such as the bullet cluster (1E0657-57) is unlikely at a 6:5–5:8σ level, with an estimated probability between 3:3 × 10-11 and 3:6 × 10-9 in ΛCDM cosmology. We show that these anomalies are alleviated in a broad class of infrared-modifed gravity theories, called brane-induced gravity, in which gravity becomes higher-dimensional at ultralarge distances. These theories include additional scalar forces that enhance gravitational attraction and therefore speed up structure formation at late times and on sufficiently large scales. The peculiar velocities are enhanced by 24–34% compared to standard gravity, with the maximal enhancement nearly consistent at the 2σ level with bulk flow observations. The occurrence of the bullet cluster in these theories is ≈ 104 times more probable than in ΛCDM cosmology. PublicationQuantum Stability of Chameleon Field Theories(2012-07-23) Upadhye, Amol; Hu, Wayne; Khoury, JustinChameleon scalar fields are dark-energy candidates which suppress fifth forces in high density regions of the Universe by becoming massive. We consider chameleon models as effective field theories and estimate quantum corrections to their potentials. Requiring that quantum corrections be small, so as to allow reliable predictions of fifth forces, leads to an upper bound m < 0.0073 (ρ /10 g cm -3) 1/3 eV for gravitational-strength coupling whereas fifth force experiments place a lower bound of m>0.0042 eV. An improvement of less than a factor of two in the range of fifth force experiments could test all classical chameleon field theories whose quantum corrections are well controlled and couple to matter with nearly gravitational strength regardless of the specific form of the chameleon potential. PublicationInstabilities of spherical solutions with multiple Galileons and SO(N) symmetry(2011-02-24) Andrews, Melinda; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, MarkThe 4-dimensional effective theory arising from an induced gravity action for a codimension greater than one brane consists of multiple Galileon fields π1, I = 1,...,N, invariant under separate Galilean transformations for each scalar, and under an internal SO(N) symmetry. We study the viability of such models by examining spherically symmetric solutions.We find that for general, nonderivative couplings to matter invariant under the internal symmetry, such solutions exist and exhibit a Vainshtein screening effect. By studying perturbations about such solutions, we find both an inevitable gradient instability and fluctuations propagating at superluminal speeds. These findings suggest that more general, derivative couplings to matter are required for the viability of SOðNÞ Galileon theories. PublicationNo-Go Theorems for Generalized Chameleon Field Theories(2012-12-14) Wang, Junpu; Hui, Lam; Khoury, JustinThe chameleon, or generalizations thereof, is a light scalar that couples to matter with gravitational strength, but whose manifestation depends on the ambient matter density. A key feature is that the screening mechanism suppressing its effects in high-density environments is determined by the local scalar field value. Under very general conditions, we prove two theorems limiting its cosmological impact: (i) the Compton wavelength of such a scalar can be at most ≃1 MPc at the present cosmic density, which restricts its impact to nonlinear scales; and (ii) the conformal factor relating Einstein- and Jordan-frame scale factors is essentially constant over the last Hubble time, which precludes the possibility of self-acceleration. These results imply that chameleonlike scalar fields have a negligible effect on the linear-scale growth history; theories that invoke a chameleonlike scalar to explain cosmic acceleration rely on a form of dark energy rather than a genuine modified gravity effect. Our analysis applies to a broad class of chameleon, symmetron, and dilaton theories. PublicationToward a Cosmological Dual to Inflation(2011-07-11) Khoury, Justin; Miller, Godfrey E.J.We derive all single-field cosmologies with unit sound speed that generate scale invariant curvature perturbations on a dynamical attractor background. We identify three distinct phases: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly varying equation of state; and a novel adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. All of these yield identical power spectra. The degeneracy is broken at the 3-point level: unlike the nearly Gaussian spectrum of slow-roll inflation, adiabatic ekpyrosis predicts large non-Gaussianities on small scales. PublicationMach's Holographic Principle(2009-10-06) Khoury, Justin; Parikh, MaulikMach’s principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach’s principle. Einstein’s equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach’s principle is realized wholly within Einstein’s general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality. PublicationSupersymmetric Galileons(2011-08-15) Khoury, Justin; Ovrut, Burt A.; Lehners, Jean-LucGalileon theories are of considerable interest since they allow for stable violations of the null energy condition. Since such violations could have occurred during a high-energy regime in the history of our Universe, we are motivated to study supersymmetric extensions of these theories. This is carried out in this paper, where we construct generic classes of N=1 supersymmetric Galileon Lagrangians. They are shown to admit nonequivalent stress-energy tensors and, hence, vacua manifesting differing conditions for violating the null energy condition. The temporal and spatial fluctuations of all component fields of the supermultiplet are analyzed and shown to be stable on a large number of such backgrounds. In the process, we uncover a surprising connection between conformal Galileon and ghost-condensate theories, allowing for a deeper understanding of both types of theories. PublicationNew Ekpyrotic Cosmology(2007-12-07) Khoury, Justin; Buchbinder, Evgeny I.; Ovrut, Burt A.In this paper, we present a new scenario of the early universe that contains a pre-big bang ekpyrotic phase. By combining this with a ghost condensate, the theory explicitly violates the null energy condition without developing any ghostlike instabilities. Thus the contracting universe goes through a nonsingular bounce and evolves smoothly into the expanding post-big bang phase. The curvature perturbation acquires a scale-invariant spectrum well before the bounce in this scenario. It is sourced by the scale-invariant entropy perturbation engendered by two ekpyrotic scalar fields, a mechanism recently proposed by Lehners et al. Since the background geometry is nonsingular at all times, the curvature perturbation remains nearly constant on superhorizon scales. It emerges from the bounce unscathed and imprints a scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations in the matter-radiation fluid at the onset of the hot big bang phase. The ekpyrotic potential can be chosen so that the spectrum has a red tilt, in accordance with the recent data from WMAP. As in the original ekpyrotic scenario, the model predicts a negligible gravity wave signal on all observable scales. As such ‘‘new ekpyrotic cosmology’’ provides a consistent and distinguishable alternative to inflation to account for the origin of the seeds of large-scale structure. PublicationSpatially Covariant Theories of a Transverse, Traceless Graviton: Formalism(2012-04-02) Khoury, Justin; Miller, Godfrey E. J.; Tolley, Andrew J.General relativity is a generally covariant, locally Lorentz covariant theory of two transverse, traceless graviton degrees of freedom. According to a theorem of Hojman, Kucharˇ, and Teitelboim, modifications of general relativity must either introduce new degrees of freedom or violate the principle of local Lorentz covariance. In this paper, we explore modifications of general relativity that retain the same graviton degrees of freedom, and therefore explicitly break Lorentz covariance. Motivated by cosmology, the modifications of interest maintain explicit spatial covariance. In spatially covariant theories of the graviton, the physical Hamiltonian density obeys an analogue of the renormalization group equation which encodes invariance under flow through the space of conformally equivalent spatial metrics. This paper is dedicated to setting up the formalism of our approach and applying it to a realistic class of theories. Forthcoming work will apply the formalism more generally. PublicationScale Invariance via a Phase of Slow Expansion(2011-07-11) Joyce, Austin; Khoury, JustinWe consider a cosmological scenario in which a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is generated by a rapidly evolving equation of state on a slowly expanding background. This scenario generalizes the ‘‘adiabatic ekpyrotic’’ mechanism proposed recently by Khoury and Steinhardt [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 091301 (2010)]. Whereas the original proposal assumed a slowly contracting background, the present work shows that the mechanism works equally well on an expanding background. This greatly expands the realm of broader cosmological scenarios in which this mechanism can be embedded. We present a phase space analysis and show that both the expanding and contracting versions of the scenario are dynamical attractors, with the expanding branch having a broader basin of attraction. In both cases, a finite range of scale-invariant modes can be generated within the regime of validity of perturbation theory.