Madden, Janice F.

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Now showing 1 - 3 of 3
  • Publication
    Has the NFL’s Rooney Rule Efforts “Leveled the Field” for African American Head Coach Candidates?
    (2010-07-15) Madden, Janice F.; Ruther, Matthew
    Madden (2004) and Madden and Ruther (2009) provide evidence that African American National Football League (NFL) head coaches significantly out-performed their white counterparts between 1990 and 2002. They conclude that this evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that African Americans had to be better coaches than whites in order to be hired as a head coach in the NFL. In 2002, the NFL promulgated the Rooney Rule requiring NFL teams to interview a minority candidate when appointing new head coaches, as well as other affirmative efforts. This paper analyzes whether the performance advantage of African American head coaches has been eliminated in the time since the Rooney Rule’s affirmative efforts have been in effect. The paper also examines racial differentials in performance in other NFL coaching positions that were less affected by Rooney Rule affirmative efforts, finding no similar time trends in performance differentials by race.
  • Publication
    Has the Concentration of Income and Poverty among Subsurbs of Large US Metropolitan Areas Changed over Time?
    (2003-04-01) Madden, Janice F.
    American policy analysts have assumed that poverty is increasingly concentrating in the inner suburbs of large cities. This study demonstrates that that assumption is inaccurate. Using data on household income and poverty for suburban civil divisions from the 1970, 1980, and 1990 US Censuses, this article calculates values for two indicators of the change in the relative concentration of income and poverty, the coefficient of variation, and a regression of changes on initial values. Results indicate that poverty and income concentrations have not generally increased among suburbs over the last twenty years. There is evidence, however, that poverty has increasingly concentrated within some suburban municipalities of older metropolitan areas in the northeast and midwest.
  • Publication
    Performance-Support Bias and the Gender Pay Gap among Stockbrokers
    (2012-01-01) Madden, Janice F.
    Organizational mechanisms, and their contexts, leading to gender inequality among stockbrokers in two large brokerages are analyzed. Inequality is the result of gender differences in sales, as both firms use performance-based pay, paying entirely by commissions. This paper develops and tests whether performance-support bias, whereby women receive inferior sales support and sales assignments, causes the commissions gap. Newly available data on the brokerages’ internal transfers of accounts among brokers allows measurement of performance-support bias. Gender differences in the quality and quantity of transferred accounts provide a way to measure gender differences in the assignment of sales opportunities and support. Sales generated from internally transferred accounts, controlling for the accounts’ sales histories, provide a “natural experiment” testing for gender differences in sales capacities. The evidence for performance-support bias is: (1) women are assigned inferior accounts; and (2) women produce sales equivalent to men when given accounts with equivalent prior sales histories.