Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Graduate Group


First Advisor

Arjun Raj


RNA labeling in situ has enormous potential to visualize transcripts and quantify their levels in single cells, but it remains challenging to produce high levels of signal while also enabling multiplexed detection of multiple RNA species simultaneously. Here, we describe clampFISH 2.0, a method that uses an inverted padlock design to efficiently detect and exponentially amplify signals from many RNA species at once, while also reducing time and cost compared to the prior clampFISH method. We leverage the increased throughput afforded by multiplexed signal amplification and sequential detection by demonstrating the ability to detect 10 different RNA species in over 1 million cells. We also show that clampFISH 2.0 works in tissue sections. We expect the advantages offered by clampFISH 2.0 will enable many applications in spatial transcriptomics.


Available to all on Sunday, September 14, 2025

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Additional Files

clampFISH 2.0 supplementary tables.xlsx (578 kB)