Date of Award


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Graduate Group

Cell & Molecular Biology

First Advisor

Michael R. Betts

Second Advisor

James A. Hoxie


Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is an immunodeficiency caused by infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Since its first documentation in 1981, the AIDS pandemic has claimed the lives of 32 million people worldwide. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy drugs (ART) and combined therapy in 1995 has transformed HIV infections from a “death-sentence” into a manageable and often non-fatal chronic condition. Still, no cure is available. While without ART most HIV-infected individuals (>99%) progress to AIDS, a subset of infected individuals (

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