Date of Award

Spring 5-18-2017

Degree Type


Degree Name

MSOB (Master of Science in Oral Biology)

Primary Advisor

Bekir Karabucak D.M.D., M.S.



The pH of commercially available local anesthetics (LAs) is purposefully low (pH 3–4). Decreasing the pH extends the shelf life of the solution and prevents its early oxidation. However, a low pH may produce a burning sensation on the injection site, a slower onset of anesthesia, and a decrease in its clinical efficacy. Buffering of local anesthetics (alkalinization) by adding sodium bicarbonate has been suggested to achieve better pain control, reduce the pain of injection and produce a faster onset of local anesthetics. The aim of this review is to utilize a systematic review to collate evidence on the use of buffering agents with local anesthetics and its effect on causing profound pulpal anesthesia in patients requiring dental therapy and its side effects.


Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and, World Health Organization (WHO) International Trials Registry Platform, OpenGrey & Google Scholar beta. Hand searching of two books “Handbook of Local Anesthesia” & “Successful Local Anesthesia for Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics” was conducted. Also, the reference lists of all included and excluded studies were checked to identify any further trials. Weighted anesthesia success rates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and compared by using a random-effects model.


14,011 studies were initially identified from the search; 5 double-blind, randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria. For combined studies, buffered local anesthetics were more likely than non-buffered solutions to achieve successful anesthesia (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11–4.71; P = 0.0232; I2 = 66%).


This systematic review of double-blind, randomized clinical trials comparing the use of buffered and non-buffered local anesthetics in patients requiring dental therapy provides level ‘A’ evidence that is based on the criteria given by the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis showed that in patients receiving dental therapy, buffered local anesthetics are more effective than non-buffered solutions when used for mandibular or maxillary anesthesia. Buffering local anesthetics has 2.29 times greater likelihood of achieving successful anesthesia.

Included in

Dentistry Commons