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Teleoperation means to perform a task at a distance. The task is performed by a manipulator located at a remote site, controlled by the master manipulator located in the control room. The loop between the master and the slave manipulator is closed by the human operator. The dexterity and manipulability of the overall system has to be high such that the actions can be easily carried out by the operator. A visual display provides the operator a view of the slave arm and the task environment, kinesthetic feedback provides a sense of physically performing the task. Kinesthetic feedback is direct feedback to the operator, while visual, audio, and other feedback are indirect in nature. The displays generated from the video data are very useful even when the quality of the image is degraded. Changes in the camera position and orientation can cause severe strain on the operator when interpreting the viewed image. The corrections are applied to the position and force transformations to reduce the strain on the operator. The position and force data are communicated over a communication channel from one station to the other. The use of communication channel basically not designed for real time processes can introduce significant delays leading to operator induced instability of the teleoperator system. In the presence of such delays the force reflection as a non-reactive feedback can help in maintaining the stability of the system. The forces encountered by the slave manipulator is transformed into audio range signals. The audio signal to the operator is a reflection of force in a non-reactive manner. Advances in high speed networks with increased bandwidth and decreased error rates provide an opportunity to implement teleoperator systems for long distance and distributed teleoperation. A single operator from a control station can interact physically with a system situated anywhere in the world and perform the tasks as though he or she was present at the remote site. A step by step implementation procedure of a direct teleoperator system with communication between master and slave stations through a computer network is described. The corrections to the transforms to nullify the effect of change in viewing parameters are discussed. The experimental results showing the effectiveness of the change in camera orientations and the comparison of active force reflection to the non-reactive force reflection in the form of auditory signal is presented.
Desikachar Venkatesh, Matthew Stein, and Richard P. Paul, "Wide Bandwidth, Distributed, Digital Teleoperation", . July 1993.
Date Posted: 28 January 2008