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In this paper, we present a model and language constructs for a distributed real-time system with the goal of allowing the structured specification of functional and timing constraints, along with explicit, early error recovery from timing faults. To do this, we draw on ideas from (non-distributed) real-time programming and distributed transaction-based systems . A complete language is not specified; the constructs described are assumed to be embedded in a block-structured procedural host programming language such as C  or C++  (our current preliminary implementation is in C). The model consists of resources, processes, and a global scheduler. Resources are abstractions that export operations to processes, and specify acceptable concurrency of operations to the scheduler. Processes manipulate resources using the exported operations, and specify synchronization and restrictions on concurrency (at the exported operation level) to the scheduler. Examples of the types of information given to the scheduler are that a set of operations should be performed "simultaneously", or that a sequence of operations should be performed without interference by another process. The global scheduler embodies the entity or entities that schedule the CPU, memory, devices and other resources in the system. It performs preemptive scheduling of all resources based on dynamic priorities associated with the processes, preserves restrictions on concurrency stated by resources and processes, and is capable of giving "guarantees" to processes that they will receive resources during a specified future time interval.
The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. In the next section, we present language constructs for an expression of timing constraints called temporal scopes, and described resources and processes. Section 3 describes what is required of the global scheduler to support these constructs, and what is entailed in guaranteeing functional consistency.' We conclude in Section 4.
Victor Wolfe, Susan Davidson, and Insup Lee, "Language Constructs for Distributed Real-Time Consistency", . November 1989.
Date Posted: 16 January 2008