Technical Reports (CIS)

Document Type

Technical Report

Subject Area


Date of this Version

January 1989


University of Pennsylvania Department of Computer and Information Science Technical Report No. MS-CIS-89-09.


A configuration of an articulated figure of joints and segments can sometimes be specified as spatial constraints. Constrained parts on the articulated figure are abstracted as end effectors, and the counterparts in the space are abstracted as goals. The goal (constraint) can be as simple as a position, an orientation, a weighted combination of position and orientation, a line, a plane, a direction, and so on, or it could be as complicated as a region in the space. An articulated figure consists of various segments connected together by joints. Each joint has some degrees of freedom which are subject to joint limits and manual adjustment. This paper presents an efficient algorithm to adjust the joint angles subject to joint limits so that the set of end effectors concurrently attempt to achieve their respective goals. Users specify end effectors and goals: the program computes a final configuration in real time in the sense that actions appear to take no longer than actual physical activities would. If it is impossible to satisfy all the goals owing to the actual constraints, the program should end up with the best possibility according to the users' assignment of importances to each goal.



Date Posted: 19 September 2007