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In this paper, we describe an interactive system for positioning articulated figures which uses a 3D direct manipulation technique to provide input to an inverse kinematics algorithm running in real time. The system allows the user to manipulate highly articulated figures, such as human figure models, by interactively dragging 3D "reach goals." The user may also define multiple "reach constraints" which are enforced during the manipulation. The 3D direct manipulation interface provides a good mechanism for control of the inverse kinematics algorithm and helps it to overcome problems with redundancies and singularities which occur with figures of many degrees of freedom. We use an adaptive technique for evaluating the constraints which allows us to ensure that only a certain user-controllable amount of time will be consumed by the inverse kinematics algorithm at each iteration of the manipulation process. This technique is also sensitive to the time it takes to redraw the screen, so it prevents the frame display rate of the direct manipulation from become too slow for interactive control.
Cary B. Phillips, Jianmin Zhao, and Norman I. Badler, "Interactive Real-Time Articulated Figure Manipulation Using Multiple Kinematic Constraints", . January 1990.
Date Posted: 22 August 2007