Departmental Papers (CIS)

Date of this Version


Document Type

Conference Paper


19th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS' 13) (as part of the Cyber-Physical Systems Week (CPSWeek)), Philadelphia, PA, April 9-11, 2013.


Over the past decade, interface-based compositional schedulability analysis has emerged as an effective method for guaranteeing real-time properties in complex systems. Several interfaces and interface computation methods have been developed, and they offer a range of tradeoffs between the complexity and the accuracy of the analysis. However, none of the existing methods consider platform overheads in the component interfaces. As a result, although the analysis results are sound in theory, the systems may violate their timing constraints when running on realistic platforms. This is due to various overheads, such as task release delays, interrupts, cache effects, and context switches. Simple solutions, such as increasing the interface budget or the tasks’ worst-case execution times by a fixed amount, are either unsafe (because of the overhead accumulation problem) or they waste a lot of resources.

In this paper, we present an overhead-aware compositional analysis technique that can account for platform overheads in the representation and computation of component interfaces. Our technique extends previous overhead accounting methods, but it additionally addresses the new challenges that are specific to the compositional scheduling setting. To demonstrate that our technique is practical, we report results from an extensive evaluation on a realistic platform.

Subject Area

CPS Real-Time

Publication Source

2013 IEEE 19th Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS)

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Copyright/Permission Statement

© 2013 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.


multiprocessing systems, processor scheduling, cache effect, context switches, interface-based compositional schedulability analysis, overhead accounting method, overhead-aware compositional analysis, real-time system, task release delay, worst-case execution times, bandwidth, context, delays, interference, real-time systems, schedules

Bib Tex

author={Phan, L.T.X. and Meng Xu and Jaewoo Lee and Insup Lee and Sokolsky, O.},
booktitle={Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS), 2013 IEEE 19th},
title={Overhead-aware compositional analysis of real-time systems},
keywords={multiprocessing systems;processor scheduling;cache effect;context switches;interface-based compositional schedulability analysis;overhead accounting method;overhead-aware compositional analysis;real-time system;task release delay;worst-case execution times;Bandwidth;Context;Delays;Interference;Real-time systems;Schedules},



Date Posted: 12 October 2015

This document has been peer reviewed.