University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics


Trique languages are spoken in Oaxaca, Mexico and belong to the Mixtecan family of the Otomanguean stock. Trique languages are composed of three languages: San Andrés Chicahuaxtla Trique, San Juan Copala Trique and San Martín Itunyoso Trique. Based on the data on these three Trique languages, Proto-Trique has been reconstructed by Matsukawa (2005, 2006a, 2006b, 2007a, 2007b). This article is the refined version of my previous reconstruction of Proto-Trique.

In Proto-Trique, seven stop sounds (/*t/, /*d/, /*k/, /*g/, /*kw/, /*gw/, /*ʔ/), three fricative sounds (/*ß/, /*s/, /*ʃ/), three affricate sounds (/*ts/, /*tʃ/, /*tʂ/), five resonant sounds (*m/, /*n/, /*l/, /*r/, /*y/), seven oral vowels (/*i/, /*e/, /*ɨ/, /*ə/, /*a/, /*o/, /*u/) and four nasal vowels (/*ĩ/, /*ɨ̃/, /*ã/, /*ũ/) can be reconstructed as phonemes. Both oral and nasal vowels have four types: short vowels (V), long vowels (VV), glottalized vowels (Vʔ) and aspirated vowels (Vh).

Some of these reconstructed phonemes show very limited distributional constraints. All of the nasal vowels, long vowels, glottalized vowels and aspirated vowels occur only in a final syllable. In non-final syllables, only short oral vowels can occur. Although Proto-Trique has both voiced and voiceless stop sounds, voiced stop sounds can be reconstructed only in a final syllable. In non-final syllables, only voiceless stop sounds can occur.

In this article, I will show how these Proto-Trique phonemes were reconstructed and how these reconstructed Proto-Trique phonemes have undergone series of historical sound changes in the three modern Trique languages.