Penn History Review


Few would dispute the notion that Mahatma K. Gandhi was one of the twentieth century’s transformative political and spiritual leaders. Among his many notable contributions, Gandhi is rightly credited with pioneering Satyagraha, resistance to tyranny though mass civil disobedience, and vocalizing a transcendent message that helped the Indian National Congress acquire independence from the British in August 1947. Often forgotten or omitted by standard histories, however, are Gandhi’s idealistic leanings that in fact compromised the universality of his appeal and confounded the ideological underpinnings of the Indian nation. His vision for India’s future was highly unorthodox.

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