Document Type

Journal Article

Date of this Version



Simpson’s paradox refers to the reversal of a statistical relationship between two variables in sub-populations when the sub-populations are combined and analyzed as a population. This article is intended to provide a broad survey of the past, present and future research surrounding the issue. Real data from a discrimination litigation case is examined to identify the occurrence of the paradox.



Date Posted: 29 September 2006

This document has been peer reviewed.


To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.